US embassy cable - 85STATE371963

ABU NIDAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION

Identifier: 85STATE371963
Wikileaks: View 85STATE371963 at Wikileaks.org
Origin: Secretary of State
Created: 1985-12-06 01:40:00
Classification: SECRET
Tags: PTER
Redacted: This cable was not redacted by Wikileaks.
O 060140Z DEC 85
FM SECSTATE WASHDC
TO AMEMBASSY MADRID IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY ROME IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY ATHENS IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY CAIRO IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY LONDON IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY THE HAGUE IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY ANKARA IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY ALGIERS IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY AMMAN IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY KUWAIT IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY RABAT IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY RIYADH IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY TEL AVIV IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY TUNIS IMMEDIATE
INFO AMEMBASSY DAMASCUS IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY MOSCOW IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY ABU DHABI IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY BEIRUT IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY BAGHDAD IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY BELGRADE IMMEDIATE
S E C R E T  STATE 371963 
 
 
TERREP EXCLUSIVE 
 
E.O. 12356:  DECL: OADR 
TAGS:  PTER 
SUBJECT:  ABU NIDAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION 
 
1.  SECRET -ENTIRE TEXT 
 
2.  FOLLOWING IS THE TEXT OF AN ANALYSIS OF THE 
ACTIVITIES OF THE ABU NIDAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION 
PREPARED BY THE US INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY: 
 
ABU NIDAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION 
 
BACKGROUND: 
 
THE ABU NIDAL GROUP IS AMONG THE MOST DANGEROUS AND 
RUTHLESS OF THE MIDDLE EASTERN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS. 
IT IS PROBABLY THE BEST ORGANIZED AND MOST EFFECTIVE OF 
THE RADICAL PALESTINIAN TERRORIST GROUPS, CAREFULLY 
PLANNING ITS OPERATIONS AND KEEPING ITS INFORMATION 
TIGHTLY COMPARTMENTED.  FOR THE PAST FEW YEARS, THE 
ORGANIZATION HAS CONCENTRATED ON JORDANIAN AND PRO-ARAFAT 
PLO TARGETS, BUT THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT IT IS AGAIN 
BROADENING ITS OPERATIONS, PARTICULARLY IN EUROPE. 
 
THE ORGANIZATION HAS A NUMBER OF COVER NAMES INCLUDING 
BLACK JUNE, NO LONGER USED, AND THE FATAH REVOLUTIONARY 
COUNCIL.  MORE RECENTLY, IT HAS BEGUN USING THE NAME ARAB 
REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES WHEN STAGING ATTACKS AGAINST GULF 
TARGETS AND EGYPT.  IT ALSO CALLS ITSELF BLACK SEPTEMBER 
IN ATTACKS AGAINST JORDANIAN AND PALESTINIAN TARGETS, AND 
THE REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION OF SOCIALIST MUSLIMS 
(ROSM) IN ATTACKS AGAINST BRITISH TARGETS. 
 
THE ABU NIDAL GROUP WAS FORMED IN 1974 FROM ELEMENTS 
WHICH BROKE AWAY FROM ARAFAT'S FATAH ORGANIZATION AFTER 
HE ANNOUNCED A BAN ON PLO INVOLVEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL 
TERRORISM OUTSIDE ISRAEL AND THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES. 
THE GROUP IS HEADED BY SABRI AL-BANNA WHO GOES BY THE 
NAME OF ABU NIDAL.  UNLIKE MANY TERRORIST GROUPS, 
HOWEVER, IT IS SO WELL ORGANIZED, THAT IT CAN FUNCTION 
WITH OR WITHOUT ITS LEADER.  INDEED, BEFORE A NOVEMBER 
19, L985 INTERVIEW FROM LIBYA, ABU NIDAL WAS WIDELY 
RUMORED TO BE DEAD.  THE ABU NIDAL GROUP ALSO APPEARS TO 
BE LESS DEPENDENT ON OUTSIDE FINANCING THAN OTHER GROUPS, 
IN PART BECAUSE OF ITS ABILITY TO GENERATE INCOME ON ITS 
OWN. 
 
THE GROUP IS COMMITTED TO THE USE OF VIOLENCE TO DESTROY 
DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS TO RECONCILE ISRAEL AND THE ARAB 
STATES.  IT ALSO CALLS FOR THE OVERTHROW OF ALL 
CONSERVATIVE AND MODERATE ARAB REGIMES AS WELL AS FOR THE 
DESTRUCTION OF MODERATE ELEMENTS IN THE PLO, NOTABLY 
ARAFAT'S FATAH ORGANIZATION.  IT CONTENDS THAT BOTH 
INTER-ARAB AND INTRA-PALESTINIAN TERRORISM ARE NEEDED TO 
CREATE AN ALL EMBRACING ARAB REVOLUTION WHICH WILL IN 
TURN LIBERATE PALESTINE.  TO FURTHER ITS REVOLUTIONARY 
AIMS, IT WILL ALSO STRIKE AT EUROPEAN AND OTHER TARGETS 
IF IT BELIEVES THAT THERE IS ANY TACTICAL ADVANTAGE IN 
DOING SO. 
 
MEMBERSHIP IN THE ORGANIZATION PROBABLY NUMBERS SEVERAL 
HUNDRED.  IT HAS CELLS THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE EAST, SOUTH 
ASIA AND EUROPE.  OPERATIONAL GROUPS ARE SMALL, NUMBERING 
ONE TO THREE, EACH WITH GOOD OPERATIONAL SECURITY AND 
GOOD COMPARTMENTALIZATION.  OPERATIONS ARE SUPPORTED BY 
CAREFULLY COLLECTED, ON-TARGET INTELLIGENCE.  THE ABU 
NIDAL ORGANIZATION ALSO MAKES USE OF THE LARGE NUMBER OF 
PALESTINIAN STUDENTS STUDYING ABROAD, SOMETIMES INVOLVING 
THEM IN OPERATIONS AFTER ONLY PERFUNCTORY TRAINING. 
 
LINKAGES TO OTHER GROUPS AND STATES: 
 
THE ABU NIDAL GROUP IS IN MANY WAYS A ROGUE 
ORGANIZATION.  WHILE MAINTAINING ITS RADICAL PALESTINIAN 
OUTLOOK, IT HAS LINKED UP WITH VARIOUS ARAB PATRONS, 
PRESUMABLY FOR FINANCIAL AND LOGISTICAL SUPPORT AS MUCH 
AS, IF NOT MORE THAN, FOR IDEOLOGICAL AFFINITY. 
 
WHEN FIRST ORGANIZED, THE GROUP CAME UNDER THE PATRONAGE 
OF IRAQ.  WHEN SADDAM HUSAYN FINALLY EXPELLED ABU NIDAL 
AND THE REMNANTS OF HIS GROUP IN MID-1983, HE MOVED TO 
SYRIA.  SINCE THEN, THE ORGANIZATION HAS BEEN CONDUCTING 
OPERATIONS AGAINST JORDAN, MODERATE PALESTINIANS AND 
ARAFAT'S MAINLINE PLO, PRESUMABLY WITH THE SUPPORT AND 
COOPERATION OF SYRIAN INTELLIGENCE. 
 
IN RECENT MONTHS, ABU NIDAL HAS SHOWN SIGNS OF BECOMING 
MORE CLOSELY ALIGNED WITH QADHAFI. THOUGH THE GROUP STILL 
MAINTAINS A HEADQUARTERS IN DAMASCUS (AND POSSIBLY ONE IN 
THE BIQA''VALLEY), ABU NIDAL HIMSELF IS APPARENTLY 
CURRENTLY RESIDING IN LIBYA.  HE HAS GRANTED SEVERAL 
INTERVIEWS FROM LIBYA AND HAS SPOKEN HIGHLY OF QADHAFI IN 
THEM. 
 
LINKAGE BETWEEN THE ABU NIDAL GROUP AND OTHER TERRORIST 
GROUPS IS MORE DIFFICULT TO ASCERTAIN.  THE GROUP IS VERY 
TIGHTLY ORGANIZED AND CONTROLLED AND, FOR SECURITY 
REASONS, DOES NOT APPEAR TO COOPERATE CLOSELY WITH OTHER 
TERRORIST GROUPS.  THIS DOES NOT RULE OUT NON-OPERATIONAL 
COOPERATION WHEN THE GROUP BELIEVES THERE IS SUFFICIENT 
TACTICAL ADVANTAGE.  FOR EXAMPLE, IT HAS ADMITTED IN AN 
INTERVIEW TO GROWING COOPERATION WITH EUROPEAN 
ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS THE IRA. 
 
CURRENT OPERATIONS: 
 
THE ABU NIDAL GROUP HAS REPEATEDLY DEMONSTRATED ITS 
ABILITY TO OPERATE IN ANY COUNTRY IT CHOOSES AND HAS 
SHOWN NO SIGNS OF ESCHEWING OPERATIONS IN COUNTRIES 
SYMPATHETIC TO THE PALESTINIAN CAUSE, PARTICULARLY IN ITS 
ANTI-ARAFAT OPERATIONS.  THE ORGANIZATION HAS STAGED 
ATTACKS IN 18 COUNTRIES ON THREE CONTINENTS, AND HAS 
CONDUCTED OVER 60 TERRORIST ATTACKS IN THE LAST EIGHT 
YEARS, 30 SINCE 1984 AND 11 SINCE JULY OF THIS YEAR. 
 
IN RECENT INTERVIEWS, NOTABLY ONE IN DER SPIEGEL, LAST 
MONTH, ABU NIDAL HIMSELF HAS MADE THREATS AGAINST MANY 
COUNTRIES AND WORLD LEADERS, INCLUDING PRESIDENT MUBARAK, 
PRIME MINISTER THATCHER AND PRESIDENT REAGAN.  HIS 
TIRADES AGAINST JEWS HAVE BEEN PARTICULARLY VIRULENT. 
ESPECIALLY SINCE 1984, ABU NIDAL HAS CONCENTRATED ON 
JORDANIANS AND PRO-ARAFAT PLO OFFICIALS.  THESE ATTACKS 
WERE PROVOKED IN LARGE MEASURE BY THE JORDANIAN AGREEMENT 
TO HOST THE PNC MEETING IN NOVEMBER 1984 AND BY KING 
HUSSEIN'S FEBRUARY ACCORD WITH ARAFAT TO RESTART THE 
ARAB-ISRAELI PEACE PROCESS.  THE ATTACKS ON JORDANIANS IN 
1985 HAVE INCLUDED: 
 
-- NOVEMBER 24 ASSASSINATION OF A PALESTINIAN IN AMMAN BY 
THREE ABU NIDAL AGENTS. 
 
- THE MURDER OF A JORDANIAN PUBLISHER IN ATHENS IN 
SEPTEMBER. 
 
-- A PLOT TO ASSASSINATE THE JORDANIAN AMBASSADOR TO 
GREECE BY A PALESTINIAN ARRESTED BY GREEK POLICE IN 
AUGUST. 
 
-- AN UNSUCCESSFUL ATTACK ON A JORDANIAN DIPLOMAT ON 
AUGUST 5, BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN INITIATED BY ABU NIDAL. 
 
- THE MURDER OF A JORDANIAN DIPLOMAT IN TURKEY ON 
JULY 24. 
 
-- ON JULY 1, A BOMB EXPLODED AT THE BRITISH AIR TICKET 
OFFICE IN MADRID ALSO DAMAGING THE TWA OFFICE UPSTAIRS. 
NEARBY, THE JORDANIAN AIRLINE OFFICE WAS HIT BY AUTOMATIC 
WEAPONS FIRE AND TWO GRENADES WHICH DID NOT EXPLODE.  IN 
ALL, ONE WAS KILLED AND 24 WERE WOUNDED. 
 
-- AMAN CLAIMING TO BE WITH BLACK SEPTEMBER FIRED A 
ROCKET AT THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY IN ROME IN 
APRIL. 
 
-- AN ABU NIDAL ROCKET ATTACK ON A JORDANIAN AIRLINER 
TAKING OFF FROM ATHENS IN APRIL.  THE ROCKET HIT THE 
PLANE BUT DID NOT EXPLODE. 
 
-- IN DECEMBER, THE JORDANIAN DEPUTY CHIEF OF MISSION IN 
BUCHAREST WAS KILLED GETTING INTO HIS CAR. 
 
THE GROUP HAS ALSO TARGETED BRITISH INTERESTS.  ROSM 
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE MARCH 1985 KIDNAPPING OF A 
BRITISH JOURNALIST IN LEBANON AND THE ASSASSINATION OF 
BRITISH DIPLOMATS IN INDIA AND GREECE IN 1984.  THE 
PURPOSE OF THESE ATTACKS IS PROBABLY TO FORCE THE UK TO 
RELEASE ABU NIDAL MEMBERS IMPRISONED FOR THE ATTEMPTED 
ASSASSINATION OF THE ISRAELI AMBASSADOR IN LONDON IN JUNE 
1982. 
 
BASED ON THE STYLE OF ABU NIDAL ATTACKS, IT IS EVIDENT 
 
THAT THE GROUP IS WILLING TO CAUSE INDISCRIMINATE 
CASUALTIES.  APART FROM THE ASSASSINATION OF PARTICULAR 
INDIVIDUALS, ABU NIDAL OPERATIONS IN 1985 RESULTED IN 
NINE DEATHS AND 201 WOUNDED AMONG INNOCENT BYSTANDERS NOT 
COUNTING THE VICTIMS IN THE EGYPT AIR TRAGEDY.  HAD THE 
JORDANIAN AIRLINER HIT BY AN ABU NIDAL ROCKET TAKING OFF 
FROM ATHENS AIRPORT CRASHED, THE NUMBER COULD HAVE BEEN 
MUCH HIGHER.  IN 1983, 111 DIED IN THE CRASH OF A GULF 
AIRLINES JET ON WHICH AN ABU NIDAL BOMB EXPLODED.  TWO 
THIRDS OF THE GROUP'S 19 ATTACKS THIS YEAR HAVE TAKEN 
PLACE IN WESTERN EUROPE.  EUROPEAN CITIZENS HAVE 
INCREASINGLY BECOME CASUALTIES AND INTERESTS OF EUROPEAN 
COUNTRIES ARE INCREASINGLY DAMAGED BY THESE ACTIONS. 
 
THE GROUP'S ABILITY TO MOVE AT WILL IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 
THEIR ACTIVITIES HARDER TO TRACE.  TO FACILITATE TRAVEL, 
THE ORGANIZATION HAS A RECORD OF USING MOROCCAN AND OTHER 
NORTH AFRICAN TRAVEL DOCUMENTS INCLUDING THOSE PRODUCED 
BY ITS OWN FORGING OPERATION.  SOME COUNTRIES SUCH AS 
YUGOSLAVIA HAVE BEEN MORE PERMISSIVE THAN OTHERS IN 
ALLOWING ABU NIDAL MEMBERS FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, 
APPARENTLY HOPING THAT THIS WILL BUY THEM A MODICUM OF 
IMMUNITY FROM TERRORIST ACTS.  THERE IS GROWING 
RECOGNITION THAT THIS IS A DUBIOUS ASSUMPTION. 
NEVERTHELESS, TAKING LEGAL ACTION IS SOMETIMES 
DIFFICULT.  IN OCTOBER, AN ALLEGED HIGH RANKING ABU NIDAL 
FIGURE USING SPAIN AS A BASE WAS ACQUITTED BY A SPANISH 
COURT OF BEING A MEMBER OF A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION. 
 
AMONG THE ATTACKS INVOLVING INNOCENT BYSTANDERS ARE: 
 
-- THE NOVEMBER 23 EGYPT AIR HIJACKING TO MALTA WHICH 
TOOK 60 LIVES.  THE ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES, A COVER 
NAME FOR ABU NIDAL, CLAIMED CREDIT FOR THE HIJACKING, AND 
THERE IS CORROBORATING EVIDENCE THAT IT WAS AN ABU NIDAL 
OPERATION.  THE ACT ALSO BORE THE SIGNATURE OF THE ABU 
NIDAL GROUP. 
 
-- THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT ARRESTED IN NOVEMBER A 12-MAN 
TEAM OF ABU NIDAL TERRORISTS INTENDING TO ATTACK THE 
ISRAELI CONSULATE IN ISTANBUL. 
 
-- ON SEPTEMBER 30, A BOMB EXPLODED NEAR THE EL AL OFFICE 
IN AMSTERDAM, CLAIMED BY ABU NIDAL (FATAH REVOLUTIONARY 
COUNCIL). 
 
-- ABU NIDAL BOMBED THE BRITISH AIR OFFICE IN ROME IN 
SEPTEMBER INJURING 15 PERSONS, MANY OF THEM PASSERSBY. 
 
-- BRITAIN ARRESTED TWO ABU NIDAL OPERATIVES IN SEPTEMBER 
WHO INTENDED TO ATTACK AN UNIDENTIFIED TARGET. 
-- ABU NIDAL MEMBERS THREW GRENADES AT ROME'S CAFE DE 
PARIS IN SEPTEMBER, INJURING 38 TOURISTS, AMONG THEM 
GERMANS, BRITONS, ITALIANS, ARGENTINIANS, BRAZILIANS AND 
AMERICANS. 
 
--  A JULY INCIDENT IN COPENHAGEN INVOLVING A SYNAGOGUE 
AND THE NORTHWEST ORIENT AIRLINES OFFICE, AND ONE IN 
AMSTERDAM ON SEPTEMBER 30 INVOLVING THE EL AL OFFICE HAVE 
NOT BEEN DIRECTLY TIED TO ANY GROUP, BUT THERE IS 
SUSPICION THAT ABU NIDAL WAS INVOLVED. 
 
-- THE GROUP BOMBED TWO HOTELS IN ATHENS, ONE IN 
SEPTEMBER WHICH INJURED 19 PERSONS, MOSTLY BRITISH, AND 
ONE IN AUGUST, WHICH INJURED 13 BRITISH. 
 
-- THE BOMBING OF TWO RESTAURANTS IN KUWAIT IN JULY, MOST 
PROBABLY BY ABU NIDAL, KILLED EIGHT PERSONS AND INJURING 
89 OTHERS. 
 
-- THE ATTACKS ON THE AIRLINE OFFICES IN MADRID KILLING 
ONE AND WOUNDING 24. 
 
-- THE ROCKET AGAINST A JORDANIAN AIRILNER IN APRIL. 
 
FUTURE TRENDS AND IMPLICATIONS: 
 
THE ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION WILL PROBABLY CONTINUE TO 
CONCENTRATE ON JORDANIAN AND PRO-ARAFAT PLO TARGETS. 
EVEN IF THE SYRIANS FOR TACTICAL REASONS SHOULD CURTAIL 
THEIR SUPPORT OF THE ABU NIDAL GROUP'S OPERATIONS AGAINST 
JORDAN AND PRO-ARAFAT PLO, THE ACTIVITIES ARE LIKELY TO 
CONTINUE.  ABU NIDAL HIMSELF, UNDER DEATH SENTENCE BY THE 
PLO SINCE 1974 FOR PLOTTING AGAINST THE LIFE OF ARAFAT, 
AND THOSE UNDER HIM ARE CARRYING ON WHAT AMOUNTS TO A 
PERSONAL VENDETTA.  THE ADDITION OF LIBYAN SUPPORT 
PRESENTS AN EVEN BROADER THREAT, PARTICULARLY FOR WESTERN 
STATES.  QADHAFI'S PARANOIA AGAINST THE WEST AND ABU 
NIDAL'S EFFICIENCY COMPRISE A DEADLY COMBINATION. 
INCREASINGLY, HIGH CASUALTY ATTACKS AGAINST WESTERN 
TARGETS ARE LIKELY. 
 
IN THE LONGER RUN, THE ABU NIDAL GROUP, DUE TO ITS 
EXCELLENT ORGANIZATION, ACCESS TO FUNDS AND SUPPORT, MOST 
RECENTLY FROM LIBYA, AND DEDICATION TO TERRORISM, 
CONSTITUTES ONE OF THE MOST DANGEROUS INTERNATIONAL 
TERRORIST GROUPS.  ITS WIDE-SPREAD NETWORK AND RUTHLESS 
DISREGARD FOR THE INTERESTS AND IDEOLOGICAL POSITIONS OF 
THE COUNTRIES, GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS IT STRIKES, MAKES 
IT A FORMIDABLE FOE.  ONLY THROUGH A COORDINATED EFFORT 
OF ALL THOSE COUNTRIES FOR WHICH IT POSES A POTENTIAL 
THREAT CAN THE ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION BE STOPPED. 
 
ANNEX: 
 
SIGNIFICANT ABU NIDAL INCIDENTS, 1978-1985 
 
1985 
 
23-27 NOVEMBER 
MALTA:  EGYPT AIR FLIGHT 648 WAS HIJACKED 
FROM ATHENS TO MALTA RESULTING IN THE 
LOSS OF 59 LIVES. 
 
14 NOVEMBER 
 
AMMAN:  ASSASSINATION OF A PALESTINIAN, 
HUSSEIN AL-BITAR.  THE JORDANIAN POLICE CAPTURED THREE 
ABU NIDEL ASSASSINS. 
 
25 SEPTEMBER 
 
ITALY:  BOMB EXPLODED AT BRITISH AIR OFFICE IN ROME, 
INJURING 15   CLAIMED BY REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION OF 
SOCIALIST MOSLEMS (ROSM). 
 
18 SEPTEMBER 
 
GREECE:  PALESTINIAN MAGAZINE PUBLISHER,MICHAEL 
AL-NUMARI, ASSASSINATED IN ATHENS.  CLAIMED BY BLACK 
SEPTEMBER. 
 
16 SEPTEMBER 
 
ITLAY:  GRENADES THROWN AT THE CAFE DE PARIS IN ROME, 
INJURING 38 TOURISTS INCLUDING 11 AMERICANS.  CLAIMED BY 
ROSM. 
             . 
3 SEPTEMBER 
 
GREECE:  GRENADES THROWN AT GLYFADA HOTEL IN ATHENS, 
WOUNDING 19  ATTACK CLAIMED BY BLACK SEPTEMBER AND ROSM. 
 
30 AUGUST 
 
GREECE:  PALESTINIAN ARRESTED IN ATHENS PLOTTING THE 
ASSASSINATION OF THE JORDANIAN AMBASSADOR.  CLAIMED TO 
REMEMBER OF BLACK SEPTEMBER. 
 
8 AUGUST 
 
GREECE:  BOMB EXPLODED AT LONDON HOTEL IN ATHENS, 
WOUNDING 13 BRITISH TOURISTS.  CLAIMED BY ROSM. 
 
24 JULY 
 
TURKEY:  FIRST SECRETARY AT THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY IN 
ANKARA ASSASSINATED BY A LONE GUNMAN.  INCIDENT CLAIMED 
BY BLACK SEPTEMBER, ISLAMIC JIHAD, AND HIZBALLAH. 
 
21 JULY 
 
LEBANON:  BOMB EXPLODED OUTSIDE THE KUWAITI AIRLINES 
OFFICE IN BEIRUT.  CLAIMED BY ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES. 
 
11 JULY 
 
KUWAIT:  TWO POWERFUL BOMBS EXPLODED WITHIN MINUTES OF 
EACH OTHER KILLING 8 PEOPLE AND INJURING 89 AT TWO 
CROWDED CAFES ABOUT L0 KILOMETERS APART.  A THIRD 
BOMB WAS DEFUSED AT ANOTHER CAFE.  ARAB 
REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
1 JULY 
 
SPAIN:  BOMB EXPLODED AT THE BRITISH AIR TICKET OFFICE IN 
MADRID, ALSO DAMAGING THE TWA OFFICE UPSTAIRS.  THE ALIA 
TICKET OFFICE NEARBY HIT BY AUTOMATIC WEAPONS FIRE AND 
TWO GRENADES THAT FAILED TO EXPLODE.  ONE KILLED, 24 
WOUNDED.  CLAIMED BY ORGANIZATION OF THE OPPRESSED, ROSM, 
AND BLACK SEPTEMBER. 
 
15 MAY 
 
LEBANON:  UNRWA OFFICIAL WALSH KIDNAPPED,BUT RELEASED THE 
NEXT DAY.  CLAIMED BY ROSM. 
 
23 APRIL 
 
KUWAIT:  AHMAD JARALLAH, A MODERATE NEWSPAPER EDITOR WAS 
WOUNDED IN AN ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION AS HE WAS LEAVING 
HIS OFFICE.  ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES CLAIMED 
RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
4 APRIL 
 
GREECE:  A ROCKET WAS FIRED AT A JORDANIAN AIRLINER AS IT 
WAS TAKING OFF FROM ATHENS AIRPORT.  THE PROJECTILE HIT 
THE PLANE BUT DID NOT EXPLODE.  CLAIMED BY BLACK 
SEPTEMBER. 
 
3 APRIL 
 
ITALY:  A LIGHT ANTI-TANK ROCKET WAS FIRED AT THE 
JORDANIAN EMBASSY IN ROME.  THE ROCKET MISSED THE EMBASSY 
AND HIT AN APARTMENT ON THE SIXTH FLOOR OF THE BUILDING, 
BUT CAUSED NO CASUALTIES.  CLAIMED BY BLACK SEPTEMBER. 
 
26 MARCH 
 
LEBANON:  ALEC COLLETT, A BRITISH JOURNALIST WORKING FOR 
UNRWA WAS ABDUCTED FROM HIS AUTOMOBILE IN BEIRUT. 
CLAIMED BY ROSM. 
 
21 MARCH 
 
GREECE:  AN UNIDENTIFIED MAN THREW A HAND GRENADE INTO A 
ROYAL JORDANIAN AIRLINE OFFICE IN ATHENS, INJURING THREE 
PEOPLE.  CLAIMED BY BLACK SEPTEMBER. 
 
21 MARCH 
 
CYPRUS:  AN UNIDENTIFIED MAN THREW TWO HAND GRENADES INTO 
A ROYAL JORDANIAN AIRLINE OFFICE IN NICOSIA.  CLAIMED BY 
BLACK SEPTEMBER. 
 
21 MARCH 
 
ITALY:  ATTACK ON ROYAL JORDAN AIRLINE OFFICE.  TWO 
WOUNDED.  CLAIMED BY BLACK SEPTEMBER. 
 
1984 
 
29 DECEMBER 
 
JORDAN:  TWO UNIDENTIFIED GUNMEN ASSASSINATED FAHD 
ALQAWASMAH, MEMBER OF THE PLO EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND 
FORMER MAYOR OF HEBRON, OUTSIDE HIS HOME IN AMMAN.  TWO 
WITNESSES TO THE SHOOTING WERE INJURED BY GUNFIRE AS THEY 
TRIED TO BLOCK THE ASSASSIN'S FLEEING VEHICLE.  CLAIMED 
BY BLACK SEPTEMBER. 
 
14 DECEMBER 
 
ITALY:  ISMAIL DARWISH, A LEADING MILITARY FIGURE IN THE 
 
FATAH MOVEMENT, WAS GUNNED DOWN ON A ROME STREET BY AN 
UNIDENTIFIED MAN WHO FLED ON A WAITING MOTOR SCOOTER. 
CLAIMED BY ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES. 
 
4 DECEMBER 
 
ROMANIA:  THE DEPUTY CHIEF OF MISSION OF THE JORDANIAN 
EMBASSY, AZMI AL-MUFTI, WAS SHOT AND KILLED AS HE WAS 
GETTING INTO HIS CAR IN BUCHAREST.  CLAIMED BY BLACK 
SEPTEMBER. 
 
29 NOVEMBER 
 
GREECE:  AN UNIDENTIFIED GUNMAN TRIED TO ASSASSINATE THE 
DEPUTY CHIEF OF THE JORDANIAN MISSION IN ATHENS, BUT HIS 
GUN JAMMED.  NO GROUP CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY BUT ABU 
NIDAL WAS SUSPECTED. 
 
27 NOVEMBER 
 
INDIA:  THE BRITISH DEPUTY HIGH COMMISSIONER, MR.PERCY 
NORRIS, WAS SHOT AND KILLED AS HE WAS BEING DRIVEN FROM 
HIS RESIDENCE TO HIS OFFICE.  ROSM CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
12 NOVEMBER 
 
AUSTRIA:  AN EXPLOSIVE DEVICE PARTIALLY EXPLODED AT THE 
IRAELI EL AL AIRLINES OFFICE.  NO CASUALTIES WERE CAUSED, 
BUT PASSERSBY WOULD HAVE BEEN INJURED OR KILLED HAD THE 
DEVICE DETONATED COMPLETELY. NO GROUP CLAIMED 
RESPONSIBILITY BUT ABU NIDAL WAS SUSPECTED. 
 
12 NOVEMBER 
 
AUSTRIA:  A SMALL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE EXPLODED IN THE 
ENTRANCE HALLWAY OF THE BRITISH CONSULATE.  NO GROUP 
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY BUT ABU NIDAL WAS SUSPECTED. 
 
25 OCTOBER 
 
ITALY:  VICE-CONSUL OF THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES WAS 
WOUNDED AND AN IRANIAN STUDENT ACCOMPANYING HIM KILLED 
WHEN SHOTS WERE FIRED INTO THEIR CAR IN ROME.  CLAIMED BY 
THE ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES. 
 
28 MARCH 
 
GREECE:  BRITISH EMBASSY FIRST SECRETARY, MR.. KENNETH 
WHITTY WAS ASSASSINATED IN ATHENS BY A LONE GUNMAN WHO 
FIRED SHOTS INTO HIS AUTOMOBILE.  ROSM CLAIMED 
RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
24 MARCH 
 
JORDAN:  BOMB DEFUSED OUTSIDE THE BRITISH CONSULATE IN 
AMMAN.  CLAIMED BY ABU NIDAL GROUP. 
 
24 MARCH 
 
JORDAN:  BOMB DEFUSED OUTSIDE THE BRITISH CULTURAL CENTER 
IN AMMAN.  CLAIMED BY ABU NIDAL GROUP. 
 
24 MARCH 
 
JORDAN:  BOMB EXPLODED IN THE PARKING LOT OF THE 
INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL WHICH IS ACROSS THE STREET FROM 
THE US EMBASSY, DAMAGING TWO VEHICLES AND SLIGHTLY 
INJURING A USAID EMPLOYEE AND HIS DAUGHTER.  A SECOND 
BOMB WAS DISCOVERED IN THE PARKING LOT AND DEFUSED. 
CLAIMED BY ABU NIDAL GROUP. 
 
8 FEBRUARY 
 
FRANCE:  UAE AMBASSADOR TO FRANCE, KHALIFAH AL-MUBARAK, 
ASSASSINATED BY A LONE GUNMAN.  CLAIMED BY ARAB 
REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES AND ISLAMIC JIHAD. 
 
1983 
 
29 DECEMBER 
 
SPAIN:  TWO JORDANIAN EMBASSY EMPLOYEES WERE ATTACKED BY 
A LONE GUNMAN AS THEY WERE DEPARTING FROM THEIR EMBASSY. 
WALID JAMAL BALKIS WAS KILLED INSTANTLY AND IBRAHIM SAMI 
MUHAMMAD WAS SERIOUSLY WOUNDED.  CLAIMED BY THE ARAB 
REVOLUTIONARY  BRIGADES. 
 
20 DECEMBER 
 
TURKEY:  A CAR BOMB INJURED ONE PERSON AND CAUSED 
EXTENSIVE DAMAGE TO AN APARTMENT BUILDING NEAR THE PLO 
OFFICE AND LIVING QUARTERS IN ANKARA.  ABU NIDAL GROUP 
SUSPECTED. 
 
19 DECEMBER 
 
TURKEY:  A CAR BOMB WAS DISCOVERED IN AN ABANDONED RENTAL 
CAR MIDWAY BETWEEN THE FRENCH CULTURAL HOUSE AND THE 
CORDON HOTEL USED BY AMERICAN MILITARY PERSONNEL IN 
IZMIR.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
7 NOVEMBER 
 
GREECE:  TWO SECURITY GUARDS OF THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY 
WERE WOUNDED ON A CROWDED STREET IN ATHENS.  ONE OF THE 
VICTIMS SUBSEQUENTLY DIED FROM HIS WOUNDS.  ARAB 
REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
31 OCTOBER 
 
JORDAN:  A CAR BOMB CONTAINING1 00015 POUNDS OF 
EXPLOSIVES DETONATED OUTSIDE THE MAIN JORDANIAN ARMY 
OFFICERS' CLUB IN ZARQA.  NO CASUALTIES WERE REPORTED. 
ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
26 OCTOBER 
 
ITALY:  JORDANIAN AMBASSADOR TO THE VATICAN AND HIS 
DRIVER WERE WOUNDED IN AN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT IN ROME. 
CLAIMED BY ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES. 
 
25 OCTOBER 
 
INDIA:  JORDANIAN AMBASSADOR WOUNDED BY AN UNKNOWN 
ASSAILANT IN NEW DELHI.  CLAIMED BY ARAB REVOLUTIONARY 
BRIGADES. 
 
23 SEPTEMBER 
 
UAE:  A GULF AIR BOEING 737 EN ROUTE FROM KARACHI, 
PAKISTAN TO ABU DHABI, CRASHED KILLING ALL111 PASSENGERS 
AND CREW.  THE CRASH MAY HAVE BEEN CAUSED BY A BOMB 
PLACED ABOARD THE AIRCRAFT.  THE ARAB REVOLUTIONARY 
BRIGADES AND ABU NIDAL CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
10 APRIL 
 
PORTUGAL:  THE PLO OBSERVER TO AN INTERNATIONAL 
CONFERENCE OF SOCIALISTS, ISAM AL-SARTAWI, WAS SHOT TO 
DEATH IN A HOTEL LOBBY.  SARTAWI'S SECRETARY WAS SLIGHTLY 
WOUNDED IN THE ATTACK.  CLAIMED BY ABU NIDAL. 
 
1982 
 
8 DECEMBER 
 
GREECE:  THE KUWAIT AIRWAYS CORPORATION OFFICES WERE 
 
BOMBED IN ATHENS, CAUSING NO CASUALTIES.  ABU NIDAL 
SUSPECTED. 
 
9 OCTOBER 
 
ITALY:  A GRENADE AND MACHINE GUN ATTACK AGAINST A 
SYNAGOGUE IN ROME KILLED ONE CHILD AND WOUNDED10 OTHER 
PERSONS. 
 
16 SEPTEMBER 
 
SPAIN:  A LONE GUNMAN ASSASSINATED A FIRST SECRETARY FROM 
THE KUWAIT EMBASSY AND WOUNDED HIS DRIVER IN MADRID.  ABU 
NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
16 SEPTEMBER 
 
PAKISTAN:  ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION OF THE KUWAITI CONSUL 
GENERAL IN KARACHI.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
23 AUGUST 
 
KUWAIT:  UAE CHARGE D'AFFAIRES, MUHAMMAD AL-JUWAI'ED, WAS 
WOUNDED IN AN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT BY A LONE GUNMAN. 
ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
23 AUGUST 
 
INDIA:  THE UAE CONSUL GENERAL IN BOMBAY ESCAPED INJURY 
DURING AN APPARENT ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT.  ABU NIDAL 
GROUP SUSPECTED. 
 
9 AUGUST 
 
FRANCE:  TWO GUNMEN WITH GRENADES AND AUTOMATIC WEAPONS 
ATTACKED THE JEWISH-OWNED RESTAURANT CHEZ GOLDENBERG IN 
PARIS, KILLING SIX AND INJURING 22.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
JULY 
 
FRANCE:  THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE PLO OFFICE IN PARIS 
WAS ASSASSINATED.  ABU NIDAL CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
5 JUNE 
 
INDIA:  THE FIRST SECRETARY OF THE KUWAITI EMBASSY IN NEW 
DELHI WAS ASSASSINATED.  ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES 
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
JUNE 
 
ITALY:  THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE PLO OFFICE IN ROME WAS 
KILLED WHEN A BOMB WAS EXPLODED UNDER HIS CAR.  ABU NIDAL 
SUSPECTED. 
 
JUNE 
 
ITALY:  PLO ACTIVIST NAZEYK MATAR WAS SHOT BY A GROUP OF 
THREE OR FOUR MEN IN ROME.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
3 JUNE 
 
UK:  ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION OF ISRAELI AMBASSADOR SHLOMO 
ARGOV AS HE DEPARTED THE DORCHESTER HOTEL IN LONDON.  A 
LONE GUNMAN FIRED A POLISH-MADE SUBMACHINE GUN AT 
POINT-BLANK RANGE, CRITICALLY WOUNDING THE AMBASSADOR. 
ABU NIDAL CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
4 FEBRUARY 
 
AUSTRIA:  A BOMB EXPLODED AT THE RESIDENCE OF CHIEF RABBI 
DR.  AKIBA EISENBERG IN VIENNA, CAUSING SOME PROPERTY 
DAMAGE BUT NO CASUALTIES.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
1981 
 
9 OCTOBER 
 
ITALY:  SENIOR PLO OFFICIAL MAJID ABU SHARARA 
ASSASSINATED IN ROME.  SHARARA WAS KILLED BY A BOMB 
PLACED UNDER THE BED OF HIS ROME HOTEL ROOM.  ABU NIDAL 
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
23 SEPTEMBER 
 
CYPRUS:  TWO ARABS ENTERED AN ISRAELI SHIPPING FIRM IN 
LIMASSOL AND THREW A HAND GRENADE, INJURING FIVE 
EMPLOYEES.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
29 AUGUST 
 
AUSTRIA:  TWO GUNMEN ARMED WITH POLISH MACHINE PISTOLS 
AND HAND GRENADES ATTACKED A VIENNA SYNAGOGUE AS 
WORSHIPPERS WERE LEAVING A SERVICE.  TWO PEOPLE WERE 
KILLED AND 20 WERE INJURED.  ABU NIDAL CLAIMED 
RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
1 JUNE 
 
BELGIUM:  PLO REPRESENTATIVE, NA'IM KADIR, ASSASSINATED 
IN BRUSSELS.  ABU NIDAL GROUP SUSPECTED. 
 
1 MAY 
 
AUSTRIA:  ASSASSINATION OF HEINZ NITTEL, HEAD OF THE 
AUSTRIAN-ISRAELI FRIENDSHIP SOCIETY IN VIENNA.  ABU NIDAL 
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
1980 
 
JULY 
 
BELGIUM:  ISRAELI COMMERCIAL ATTACHE ASSASSINATED IN 
BRUSSELS.  ABU NIDAL CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
22 APRIL 
 
YUGOSLAVIA:  ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION OF FATAH OFFICIAL 
SALAH KHALAF (ABU IYAD) IN BELGRADE, BUT ONLY ONE OF HIS 
BODYGUARDS WAS WOUNDED.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
3 MARCH 
 
SPAIN:  A GUNMAN INTENDED TO ASSASSINATE A PROMINENT 
SPANISH JEWISH LAWYER, BUT SHOT AND KILLED ANOTHER LAWYER 
BY MISTAKE.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
17 JANUARY 
 
FRANCE:  THE MANAGER OF AN ARAB BOOKSTORE WAS 
ASSASSINATED IN PARIS.  ABU NIDAL CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
1978 
 
5 AUGUST 
 
PAKISTAN:  FOUR GUNMEN ARMED WITH SUBMACHINE  GUNS AND 
GRENADES, BROKE INTO THE PLO OFFICE IN ISLAMABAD AND 
MURDERED A RADIO OPERATOR, TWO PALESTINIAN STUDENTS, AND 
A PAKISTANI POLICE GUARD.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
3 AUGUST 
 
FRANCE:  TWO GUNMEN INVADED THE OFFICE OF PLO 
REPRESENTATIVE IZZ AL-DIN AL-QALAQ AND SHOT HIM TO DEATH 
IN PARIS.  AS THEY DEPARTED, THEY THREW A GRENADE WHICH 
KILLED AL-QALAQ'S DEPUTY AND INJURED OTHERS NEARBY. 
 
BLACK JUNE AND SEPTEMBER CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. 
 
15 JUNE 
 
KUWAIT:  PLO OFFICIAL 'ALI NASIR YASIM WAS FOUND SHOT TO 
DEATH IN FRONT OF HIS HOME.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
FEBRUARY 
 
CYPRUS:  TWO GUNMEN INVADED THE HOTEL IN NICOSIA WHERE 
THE PRESIDIUM OF THE AFRO-ASIAN PEOPLES' SOLIDARITY 
ORGANIZATION WAS MEETING AND KILLED ITS SECRETARY 
GENERAL, YUSUF AL-SIBA'I, THE EDITOR OF THE CAIRO 
NEWSPAPER "AL-AHRAM" AND A CONFIDANT OF ANWAR SADAT. 
HAVING TAKEN 30 HOSTAGES, THE TERRORISTS EXCHANGED SOME 
OF THEM FOR AN AIRCRAFT WITH A VOLUNTEER CREW AND SAFE 
CONDUCT OUT OF THE COUNTRY.  THEY TOOK OFF WITH 11 
HOSTAGES BUT WERE REFUSED PERMISSION TO LAND BY LIBYA, 
KUWAIT, SOMALIA, ETHIOPIA, AND SOUTH YEMEN; DJIBOUTI 
ALLOWED A REFUELING STOP.  CONSEQUENTLY, THEY RETURNED TO 
LARNACA AIRPORT AND RESUMED NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE CYPRIOT 
GOVERNMENT.  JUST AS THE TERRORISTS WERE AGREEING TO 
RELEASE THEIR HOSTAGES AND SURRENDER IN EXCHANGE FOR 
PASSPORTS AND A NEW SAFE CONDUCT, AN EGYPTIAN 
COUNTER-TERRORISM FORCE CONDUCTED AN UNAUTHORIZED AND 
UNEXPECTED AIRBORNE ASSAULT ON LARNACA AIRPORT.  FIFTEEN 
EGYPTIANS WERE KILLED AND16 WOUNDED AND THEIR AIRCRAFT 
WAS DESTROYED.  SEVEN CYPRIOTS WERE WOUNDED.  THE TWO 
TERRORISTS SURRENDERED. 
 
4 JANUARY 
 
UK:  PLO REPRESENTATIVE SA'ID HAMMAMI WHO WAS KNOWN TO 
FAVOR PALESTINIAN COEXISTENCE WITH ISRAEL, WAS SHOT DEAD 
IN HIS OFFICE IN LONDON.  ABU NIDAL SUSPECTED. 
 
5.  BEIRUT MINIMIZE CONSIDERED. 
 
 
SHULTZ 

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