US embassy cable - 91STATE419544

U.S. POLICY ON RECOGNITION OF FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS: PRESS GUIDANCE

Identifier: 91STATE419544
Wikileaks: View 91STATE419544 at Wikileaks.org
Origin: Secretary of State
Created: 1991-12-28 18:44:00
Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
Tags: PGOV PREL PNAT PBTS
Redacted: This cable was not redacted by Wikileaks.
O 281844Z DEC 91
FM SECSTATE WASHDC
TO ALL DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR POSTS IMMEDIATE
SPECIAL EMBASSY PROGRAM IMMEDIATE
UNCLAS STATE 419544 
 
INFORM CONSULS ALSO FOR USEC/USOECD 
 
E.O. 12356: N/A 
TAGS: PGOV, PREL, PNAT, PBTS 
SUBJECT:  U.S. POLICY ON RECOGNITION OF FORMER SOVIET 
REPUBLICS:  PRESS GUIDANCE 
 
ROME PASS VATICAN FOR HOLY SEE 

1.  SUMMARY.  THE PRESIDENT ANNOUNCED USG POLICY ON 
RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLICS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION ON 
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 25.  FOLLOWING IS PRESS GUIDANCE THAT 
ADDRESSEES MAY USE WITH LOCAL PRESS AND OTHER CONTACTS. 
PARA 2 IS GENERAL GUIDANCE IN Q-AND-A FORMAT; PARA 3 IS 
THE TEXT OF THE PRESIDENT'S DECEMBER 25 STATEMENT, AND 
PARA 4 IS THE TEXT OF THE PRESIDENT'S FAREWELL STATEMENT 
TO FORMER USSR PRESIDENT MIKHAIL GORBACHEV.  END SUMMARY. 

2.  BEGIN TEXT OF Q-AND-A. 

RECOGNITION POLICY 
------------------ 

Q:    HOW DO THE SIX REPUBLICS WITH WHICH THE PRESIDENT 
    DID NOT ANNOUNCE HIS INTENTION TO ESTABLISH 
    DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS ATTAIN SUCH RELATIONS? 

A:    WE HAVE RECOGNIZED ALL TWELVE OF THE FORMER 
    REPUBLICS AS INDEPENDENT, SOVEREIGN STATES. 

    THE OVERALL PLAN ANNOUNCED BY THE PRESIDENT IS THAT 
    OUR EMBASSY IN MOSCOW WILL REMAIN THERE AS OUR 
    EMBASSY TO RUSSIA, AND OUR CONSULATE GENERAL IN KIEV 
    WILL BECOME OUR EMBASSY TO UKRAINE.  WE WILL MOVE 
    QUICKLY TO ESTABLISH FULL DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH 
    ARMENIA, KAZAKHSTAN, BYELARUS, AND KYRGYZSTAN. 
 
,    CONCERNING THE OTHER SIX REPUBLICS: 

    -,  WE WANT TO BE ASSURED OF THEIR COMMITMENT TO THE 
        PRINCIPLES ADVANCED BY SECRETARY BAKER.  WE WILL 
        ACTIVELY BE SEEKING THAT ASSURANCE. 

    --  THE MEASURES BY WHICH WE WILL BE DECIDING FUTURE 
        DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS ARE THOSE YOU ARE FAMILIAR 
        WITH:  SECRETARY BAKER'S FIVE PRINCIPLES AND THE 
        NEW STATES' IMPLEMENTATION OF RESPONSIBLE 
        POLICIES ON KEY MILITARY AND SECURITY ISSUES 
        AND INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND ECONOMIC OBLIGATIONS. 

    --  OVER THE PAST SEVERAL MONTHS WE HAVE HAD 
        OFFICIAL CONTACTS WITH ALL OF THESE 
        GOVERNMENTS.  THESE CONTACTS WILL CONTINUE. 

    --  WE WILL CONTINUE TO ENGAGE ALL OF THE REPUBLICS 
        ON ISSUES OF MUTUAL CONCERN, INCLUDING 
        DISCUSSIONS OF THEIR PROGRESS IN IMFLEMENTING 
        DEMOCRATIC AND ECONOMIC REFORMS. 

    --  WE LOOK FORWARD TO BEING ABLE TO CONDUCT FULL 
        DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WILL ALL OF THE REPUBLICS. 

Q:    WHEN WILL YOU BE OPENING EMBASSIES IN THE NEWLY 
    RECOGNIZED COUNTRIES? 

A:    OUR EMBASSY IN MOSCOW WILL FUNCTION AS OUR EMBASSY 
    TO RUSSIA, AND OUR CONSULATE GENERAL IN KIEV WILL 
    BECOME OUR EMBASSY TO UKRAINE. 

    WE HAVE HAD PLANS FOR SOME TIME TO ESTABLISH POSTS 
    IN ALMA-ATA, YEREVAN, AND MENSK.  WE INTEND TO HAVE 
    THESE EMBASSIES FUNCTIONING BEFORE THE END OF THIS 
    FISCAL YEAR, AND WE WILL OPEN A POST IN BISHKEK AS 

    SOON AS RESOURCES PERMIT.  WE WILL BE WORKING WITH 
    CONGRESS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS PLAN. 

Q:    WHAT STAGE ARE WE AT WITH REGARDS TO NOMINATING 
    AMBASSADORS/STAFFS? 

A:    WE ARE REVIEWING STAFFING QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE 
    OPENING OF THE NEW POSTS. 

Q:    WILL AMBASSADOR STRAUSS, FOR THE TIME BEING, 
    CONTINUE AS AMBASSADOR TO ALL THE NEW COUNTRIES OR 
    JUST RUSSIA? 

A:    AMBASSADOR STRAUSS WILL SERVE AS AMBASSADOR TO 
    RUSSIA. WE ARE WORKING TO NOMINATE AMBASSADORS TO 
    THE OTHER REPUBLICS WITH WHICH WE ARE ESTABLISHING 
    FULL DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS.  OUR CONSUL GENERAL IN 
    KIEV WILL SERVE AS CHARGE UNTIL AN AMBASSADOR TO 
    UKRAINE IS NAMED.  FOR THE OTHER COUNTRIES, FOR THE 
    TIME BEING, WE WILL RELY ON AMBASSADOR STRAUSS AND 
    HIS STAFF TO MAINTAIN CONTACTS WITH THESE 
    GOVERNMENTS UNTIL PERMANENT ARRANGEMENTS ARE DECIDED 
    UPON. 

Q:    WILL THE REPUBLICS WITH WHICH WE DID NOT ESTABLISH 
    FULL DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BE ABLE TO SEND DIPLOMATIC 
    REPRESENTATIVES TO THE U.S.? 

A:    YES.  OVER THE PAST SEVERAL MONTHS WE HAVE RECEIVED 
    MANY VISITS FROM OFFICIALS OF THESE GOVERNMENTS AND 
    HAVE CONDUCTED SUBSTANTIVE DISCUSSIONS WITH THEM. 
    THIS WILL CONTINUE DESPITE THE ABSENCE OF FULL 
    DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. 

    (IF ASKED)  A PERMANENT DIPLOMATIC PRESENCE IN THE 
    U.S. BY THESE STATES WILL REQUIRE THE CONSENT OF 
    BOTH SIDES. 

Q:    THROUGH WHAT CHANNEL WILL YOU DO BUSINESS WITH THE 
    REPUBLICS WITH WHICH WE DO NOT HAVE FULL DIPLOMATIC 
    RELATIONS? 

A:    DURING A TRANSTION PERIOD, WE INTEND TO MAINTAIN 
    CONTACT WITH THESE GOVERNMENTS THROUGH AMBASSADOR 
    STRAUSS AND HIS STAFF. 

    WE WILL ALSO CONTINUE TO RECEIVE OFFICIAL VISITORS 
    IN WASHINGTON FROM THESE STATES. 

Q:    DOES THE US RECOGNIZE RUSSIA AS THE SUCCESSOR STATE 
    TO THE USSR? 

A:    RUSSIA AS WELL AS THE OTHER REFUBLICS WILL CONTINUE 
    THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. 
    THERE ARE MANY ISSUES THAT WE WILL WANT TO CLARIFY 
    WITH RUSSIA AND THE OTHER REPUBLICS. 

    IN ANY CASE, WE ARE PREPARED TO BUILD A CONSTRUCTIVE 
    AND CORDIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA AND THE OTHER 
    REPUBLICS IN ALL AREAS. 

Q:    ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH THE ASSURANCES YOU HAVE 
    RECEIVED ON SECURITY MATTERS? 

A:    AS THE PRESIDENT SAID IN HIS CHRISTMAS ANNOUNCEMENT, 
    WE CONGRATULATE THE NEW STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH 
    ON THE PEACEFUL AND DEMOCRATIC PATH THEY HAVE 
    CHOSEN, AND FOR THEIR CAREFUL ATTENTION TO NUCLEAR 
    CONTROL AND SAFETY DURING THIS TRANSITION. 

    THE PRESIDENT MENTIONED IN HIS PRESS CONFERENCE 
    DECEMBER 26 THAT HE HAS RECEIVED PROPER ASSURANCES 
    FROM YELTSIN' GORBACHEV, AND ALL THE REPUBLIC 
    LEADERS INVOLVED  AND SEES NO REASON TO BE ANYTHING 
    BUT SATISFIED ON THIS POINT. 

Q:    WILL THE US SUPPORT CSCE MEMBERSHIP FOR THE NEW 
    STATES? 

A:    WE BELIEVE IT IS VITALLY IMPORTANT THAT THE CSCE 
    STANDARDS BE ADOPTED AND ADHERED TO THROUGHOUT THE 
    ENTIRE AREA OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. 

    WE WILL BE WORKING WITH OUR CSCE PARTNERS TO ENSURE 
    THAT APPROPRIATE ARRANGEMENTS ARE DEVELOPED FOR THE 
    PARTICIPATION OF THESE NEW STATES WHO ARE PREPARED 
    TO CONDUCT THEIR AFFAIRS IN FULL CONFORMANCE WITH 
    CSCE NORMS AND PRINCIPLES. 

Q:    WILL THE LEGISLATIVE RESTRICTIONS ON THE SOVIET 
    UNION APPLY TO THE NEW COUNTRIES?  TO RUSSIA? 
    (FYI:  THESE RESTRICTIONS INCLUDE SUCH ISSUES AS 
    EXIM CREDIT TO SOVIET UNION, ACQUISITION OF NEW 
    FACILITIES, COMPENSATION FOR EMBASSY BUGGING, USE OF 

    CONSULATE BUILDINGS IN NEW YORK, ETC.) 

A:    WE WILL NEED TO REVIEW THESE PROVISIONS ON A 
    CASE-BY-CASE BASIS AND, AS APPROPRIATE, CONSULT WITH 
    CONGRESS. 

Q:    THERE WERE MANY "SECURITY RELATED" RESTRICTIONS 
    APPLIED TO SOVIET DIPLOMATS (TRAVEL CONTROLS, LIMITS 
    ON NUMBER OF PERSONNEL, ETC.).  WILL RUSSIA AND THE 
    OTHER REPUBLICS BE SUBJECT TO THESE RESTRICTIONS? 

A:    WE ARE EXAMINING THESE ISSUES CLOSELY AND WILL 
    ADDRESS THEM AS WE DEVELOP BILATERAL RELATIONS WITH 
    RUSSIA AND THE OTHER REPUBLICS.  FOR NOW, THEY WILL 
    REMAIN IN EFFECT. 

MIDDLE EAST PEACE TALKS 
----------------------- 

Q:    WHO IS THE CO-SPONSOR OF THE MULTILATERAL MIDDLE 
    EAST PEACE TALKS NOW THAT THE SOVIET UNION NO LONGER 
    EXISTS? 

A:    THE CO-SPONSOR OF THE PEACE TALKS IS THE RUSSIAN 
    FEDERATION. 

Q:    WILL THE MULTILATERALS STILL BE HELD IN MOSCOW? 

A:    AS THE SECRETARY SAID DECEMBER 19, WE HAVE AN 
    AGREEMENT WITH RESPECT TO THE VENUE.  WE ANTICIPATE 
    THAT THOSE TALKS WILL TAKE PLACE THE 28TH AND 29TH 
    OF JANUARY IN MOSCOW. 

RUSSIA IN THE UNITED NATIONS 
---------------------------- 

Q:    WHEN WILL THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FORMALLY ASSUME THE 
    FORMER USSR'S SEATS IN THE UN, INCLUDING ON THE 
    SECURITY COUNCIL? 

A:    PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S LETTER INFORMING THE UN 
    SECRETARY GENERAL THAT THE MEMBERSHIP OF THE USSR IN 
    THE UN WILL BE CONTINUED BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION 
    WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE UN SECRETARIAT ON DECEMBER 
    24.  YELTSIN'S LETTER HAS BEEN CIRCULATED TO MEMBERS 
    OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL AND THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, AS 
    WELL AS TO OTHER ORGANS AND ORGANIZATIONS OF THE UN 

    SYSTEM.  AS STATED BY THE PRESIDENT THE U.S. 
    SUPPORTS RUSSIA'S CONTINUATION IN THE FORMER USSR'S 
    UN SEATS. 

    AS RUSSIA WILL OCCUPY THE SEATS OF THE FORMER USSR 
    AS A CONTINUATION OF THE USSR, IT IS OUR VIEW THAT 
    NO FURTHER UN ACTION IS NECESSARY FOR RUSSIA TO 
    OCCUPY THOSE SEATS.  CERTAIN PRACTICAL STEPS MAY BE 
    REQUIRED TO GIVE EFFECT WITH THESE DEVELOPMENTS IN 
    THE UN SYSTEM. 

Q:    CAN A CHALLENGE BE MADE TO RUSSIA'S ASSUMPTION OF 
    THE USSR'S UN SEAT? 

A:    THEORETICALLY, THERE COULD BE SUCH A CHALLENGE. 
    HOWEVER, SINCE CONTINUED MEMBERSHIP BY RUSSIA OF THE 
    USSR'S MEMBERSHIP IN THE UN IS SUPPORTED BY THE 
    STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH, WE DO NOT EXPECT ANY 
    CHALLENGE. 

    (FYI:  GENERALLY, UNDER UN PRACTICE CHALLENGES TO 
    THE CREDENTIALS OF A STATE ARE RESOLVED BY THE 
    GENERAL ASSEMBLY.  WE NOTE THAT THE FORTY-SIXTH 
    SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADJOURNED DECEMBER 
    20.) 

Q:    WILL THE UNITED STATES SUPPORT ALL THE FORMER SOVIET 
    REPUBLICS FOR UN MEMBERSHIP? 

A:    THE PRESIDENT HAS ANNOUNCED THAT THE UNITED STATES 
    WILL SUPPORT UN MEMBERSHIP FOR ARMENIA, KAZAKHSTAN 
    AND KYRGYZSTAN.  BELARUS AND UKRAINE ARE ORIGINAL 
    MEMBERS OF THE UN.  WE LOOK FORWARD TO APPLICATIONS 
    FOR UN MEMBERSHIP BY THE OTHER REPUBLICS NOT 
    CURRENTLY MEMBERS, CONSISTENT WITH U.S. SUPPORT FOR 
    THE PRINCIPLE OF UNIVERSALITY OF UN MEMBERSHIP. 

Q:    HOW DOES A STATE BECOME A MEMBER OF THE UNITED 
    NATIONS? 

A:    ANY STATE THAT WISHES TO JOIN THE UNITED NATIONS 
    MUST MAKE AN APPLICATION TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL, 
    WHO PASSES THE APPLICATION ON TO THE SECURITY 
    COUNCIL.  THE SECURITY COUNCIL IN TURN MUST DECIDE 
    WHETHER TO RECOMMEND THE STATE'S MEMBERSHIP TO THE 
    GENERAL ASSEMBLY.  THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY MUST THEN 
    ACCEPT THE STATE FOR MEMBERSHIP BY A TWO-THIRDS 
    MAJORITY. 

    WE NOTE THAT IN ORDER TO BE ADMITTED TO THE UNITED 
    NATIONS AN APPLICANT MUST BE A STATE, BE 
    PEACE-LOVING, ACCEPT THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE CHARTER, 
    BE ABLE TO CARRY OUT THESE OBLIGATIONS, AND BE 
    WILLING TO DO SO. 

Q:    HOW QUICKLY CAN THE UN ACT ON AN APPLICATION FOR 
    MEMBERSHIP? 

A:    AFTER THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS RECOMMENDED A STATE 
    FOR MEMBERSHIP  THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY MUST TAKE 
    ACTION AT ITS NEXT SESSION. 

TREATIES WITH THE FORMER USSR 
----------------------------- 

Q:    WILL THE REPUBLICS ABIDE BY THE TREATIES THAT THE 
    SOVIET UNION HAD MADE WITH THE U.S. AND OTHER 
    COUNTRIES, AND WILL WE CONTINUE TO ABIDE BY THOSE 
    TREATIES NOW THAT THE SOVIET UNION NO LONGER EXISTS? 

A:    WE EXPECT THE REPUBLICS TO FULFILL THE TREATY 
    OBLIGATIONS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. 

    THE ALMA ATA DECLARATION SIGNED DECEMBER 21 CONTAINS 
    A SPECIFIC STATEMENT BY THE MEMBER STATES OF THE NEW 
    COMMONWEALTH GUARANTEEING "FULFILLMENT OF 
    INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS STEMMING FROM THE TREATIES 
    AND AGREEMENTS OF THE FORMER USSR." 

    WE TOO WILL CONTINUE TO FULFILL OUR TREATY 
    OBLIGATIONS. 

    IN SOME CASES, IT WILL NOT MAKE SENSE TO HAVE EACH 
    REPUBLIC ASSUME THE OBLIGATIONS OF A TREATY OR 
    AGREEMENT.  THIS WOULD BE THE CASE, FOR EXAMPLE 
    WHERE APPLICATION OF A TREATY TO A PARTICULAR 
    REPUBLIC WOULD BE INCONSISTENT WITH THE TREATY'S 
    "OBJECT AND PURPOSE."  THUS, A TREATY OR AGREEMENT 
    RELATING SPECIFICALLY TO ACTIVITY IN ONLY ONE 
    REPUBLIC WOULD NOT BE APPLICABLE TO THE OTHER 
    ELEVEN.  WE WILL NEED TO WORK OUT DETAILS SUCH AS 
    THESE WITH THE NEW REPUBLICS. 

END TEXT OF Q-AND-A. 

3.  BEGIN TEXT OF DECEMBER 25 PRESIDENTIAL STATEMENT. 

GOOD EVENING AND MERRY CHRISTMAS TO ALL AMERICANS ACROSS 
OUR GREAT COUNTRY.  DURING THESE LAST FEW MONTHS, YOU AND 
I HAVE WITNESSED ONE OF THE GREATEST DRAMAS OF THE 20TH 
CENTURY--THE HISTORIC AND REVOLUTIONARY TRANSFORMATION OF 
A TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIP, THE SOVET UNION, AND THE 
LIBERATION OF ITS PEOPLES.  AS WE CELEBRATE CHRISTMAS 
THIS DAY OF PEACE AND HOPE, I THOUGHT WE SHOULD TAKE JUST 
A FEW MINUTES TO REFLECT ON WHAT THESE EVENTS MEAN FOR US 
AS AMERICANS. 

FOR OVER 40 YEARS, THE UNITED STATES LED THE WEST IN THE 
STRUGGLE AGAINST COMMUNISM AND THE THREAT IT POSED TO OUR 
MOST PRECIOUS VALUES.  THIS STRUGGLE SHAPED THE LIVES OF 
ALL AMERICANS.  IT FORCED ALL NATIONS TO LIVE UNDER THE 
SPECTER OF NUCLEAR DESTRUCTION.  THAT CONFRONTATION IS NOW 
OVER.  THE NUCLEAR THREAT, WHILE FAR FROM GONE, IS 
RECEDING.  EASTERN EUROPE IS FREE.  THE SOVIET UNION 
ITSELF IS NO MORE. 

THIS IS A VICTORY FOR DEMOCRACY AND FREEDOM.  IT'S A 
VICTORY FOR THE MORAL FORCE OF OUR VALUES.  EVERY AMERICAN 
CAN TAKE PRIDE IN THIS VICTORY, FROM THE MILLIONS OF MEN 
AND WOMEN WHO HAVE SERVED OUR COUNTRY IN UNIFORM TO 
MILLIONS OF AMERICANS WHO SUFPORTED THEIR COUNTRY AND A 
STRONG DEFENSE UNDER NINE PRESIDENTS. 

NEW, INDEPENDENT NATIONS HAVE EMERGED OUT OF THE WRECKAGE 
OF THE SOVIET EMPIRE.  LAST WEEKEND, THESE FORMER 
REPUBLICS FORMED A COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES. 

THIS ACT MARKS THE END OF THE OLD SOVIET UNION, SIGNIFIED 
TODAY BY MIKHAIL GORBACHEV'S DECISION TO RESIGN AS 
PRESIDENT. 

I'D LIKE TO EXPRESS ON BEHALF OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE MY 
GRATITUDE TO MIKHAIL GORBACHEV FOR YEARS OF SUSTAINED 
COMMITMENT TO WORLD PEACE AND FOR HIS INTELLECT, VISION 
AND COURAGE.  I SPOKE WITH MIKHAIL GORBACHEV THIS 
MORNING.  WE REVIEWED THE MANY ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE LAST 
FEW YEARS AND SPOKE OF HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.  MIKHAIL 
GORBACHEV'S REVOLUTIONARY POLICIES TRANSFORMED THE SOVIET 
UNION. 

HIS POLICIES PERMITTED THE PEOPLES OF RUSSIA AND THE OTHER 
REPUBLICS TO CAST ASIDE DECADES OF OPPRESSION AND 
ESTABLISH THE FOUNDATIONS OF FREEDOM.  HIS LEGACY 
GUARANTEES HIM AN HONORED PLACE IN HISTORY AND PROVIDES A 

SOLID BASIS FOR THE UNITED STATES TO WORK IN EQUALLY 
CONSTRUCTIVE WAYS WITH HIS SUCCESSORS. 

THE UNITED STATES APPLAUDS AND SUPPORTS THE HISTORIC 
CHOICE FOR FREEDOM BY THE NEW STATES OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 
WE CONGRATULATE THEM ON THE PEACEFUL AND DEMOCRATIC PATH 
THEY HAVE CHOSEN, AND FOR THEIR CAREFUL ATTENTION TO 
NUCLEAR CONTROL AND SAFETY DURING THIS TRANSITION. 

DESPITE A POTENTIAL FOR INSTABILITY AND CHAOS, THESE 
EVENTS CLEARLY SERVE OUR NATIONAL INTERESTS. 

WE STAND TONIGHT BEFORE A NEW WORLD OF HOPE AND 
POSSIBILITIES FOR OUR CHILDREN, A WORLD WE COULD NOT HAVE 
CONTEMPLATED A FEW YEARS AGO. 

THE CHALLENGE FOR US NOW IS TO ENGAGE THESE NEW STATES IN 
SUSTAINING THE PEACE AND BUILDING A MORE PROSPEROUS FUTURE. 

AND SO TODAY, BASED ON COMMITMENTS AND ASSURANCES GIVEN TO 
US BY SOME OF THESE STATES CONCERNING NUCLEAR SAFETY, 
DEMOCRACY AND FREE MARKETS, I AM ANNOUNCING SOME IMPORTANT 
STEPS DESIGNED TO BEGIN THIS PROCESS. 

FIRST  THE UNITED STATES RECOGNIZES AND WELCOMES THE 
EMERGENCY OF A FREE, INDEPENDENT AND DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA LED 
BY ITS COURAGEOUS PRESIDENT  BORIS YELTSIN.  OUR EMBASSY 
IN MOSCOW WILL REMAIN THERE AS OUR EMBASSY TO RUSSIA.  WE 
WILL SUPPORT RUSSIA'S ASSUMPTION OF THE USSR'S SEAT AS A 
PERMANENT MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL. 

I LOOK FORWARD TO WORKING CLOSELY WITH PRESIDENT YELTSIN 
IN SUPPORT OF HIS EFFORTS TO BRING DEMOCRATIC AND MARKET 
REFORM TO RUSSIA. 

SECOND, THE UNITED STATES ALSO RECOGNIZES THE INDEPENDENCE 
OF UKRAINE, ARMENIA, KAZAKHSTAN, BYELARUS AND KYRGYZSTAN, 
ALL STATES THAT HAVE MADE SPECIFIC COMMITMENTS TO US.  WE 
WILL MOVE QUICKLY TO ESTABLISH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH 
THESE STATES AND BUILD NEW TIES TO THEM.  WE WILL SPONSOR 
MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNITED NATIONS FOR THOSE NOT ALREADY 
MEMBERS. 

THIRD  THE UNITED STATES ALSO RECOGNIZES TODAY AS 
INDEPENDENT STATES THE REMAINING SIX FORMER SOVIET 
REPUBLICS--MOLDOVA, TURKMENISTAN, AZERBAIJAN, TAJIKISTAN, 
GEORGIA AND UZBEKISTAN.  WE WILL ESTABLISH DIPLOMATIC 
RELATIONS WITH THEM WHEN WE ARE SATISFIED THAT THEY HAVE 

MADE COMMITMENTS TO RESPONSIBLE SECURITY POLICIES AND 
DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES, AS HAVE THE OTHER STATES WE 
RECOGNIZED TODAY. 

THESE DRAMATIC EVENTS COME AT A TIME WHEN AMERICANS ARE 
ALSO FACING CHALLENGES HERE AT HOME.  I KNOW THAT FOR MANY 
OF YOU THESE ARE DIFFICULT TIMES, AND I WANT ALL AMERICANS 
TO KNOW THAT I AM COMMITTED TO ATTACKING OUR ECONOMIC 
PROBLEMS AT HOME WITH THE SAME DETERMINATION WE BROUGHT TO 
WINNING THE COLD WAR.  I AM CONFIDENT WE WILL MEET THIS 
CHALLENGE AS WE HAVE SO MANY TIMES BEFORE, BUT WE CANNOT 
IF WE RETREAT INTO ISOLATIONISM.  WE WILL ONLY SUCCEED IN 
THIS INTERCONNECTED WORLD BY CONTINUING TO LEAD THE FIGHT 
FOR FREE PEOPLE AND FREE AND FAIR TRADE.  A FREE AND 
PROSPEROUS GLOBAL ECONOMY IS ESSENTIAL FOR AMERICA'S 
PROSPERITY.  THAT MEANS JOBS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH RIGHT 
HERE AT HOME. 

THIS IS A DAY OF GREAT HOPE FOR ALL AMERICANS.  OUR 
ENEMIES HAE BECOME OUR PARTNERS, COMMITTED TO BUILDING 
DEMOCRATIC AND CIVIL SOCIETIES.  THEY ASK FOR OUR SUPPORT, 
AND WE WILL GIVE IT TO THEM.  WE WILL DO IT BECAUSE AS 
AMERICANS WE CAN DO NO LESS.  FOR OUR CHILDREN. WE MUST 
OFFER THEM THE GUARANTEE OF A PEACEFUL AND PROSPEROUS 
FUTURE  A FUTURE GROUNDED IN A WORLD BUILT ON STRONG 
DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES, FREE FROM THE SPECTER OF GLOBAL 
CONFLICT. 

MAY GOD BLESS THE PEOPLE OF THE NEW NATIONS IN THE 
COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES.  AND, ON THIS SPECIAL 
DAY OF PEACE ON EARTH, GOODWILL TOWARD MEN, MAY GOD 
CONTINUE TO BLESS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.  GOOD 
NIGHT. 

END TEXT OF DECEMBER 25 PRESIDENTIAL STATEMENT. 

4.  BEGIN TEXT OF PRESIDENT'S FAREWELL STATEMENT TO 
GORBACHEV. 

MIKHAIL GORBACHEV'S RESIGNATION AS PRESIDENT OF THE SOVIET 
UNION CULMINATES A REMARKABLE ERA IN THE HISTORY OF HIS 
COUNTRY AND IN ITS LONG AND OFTEN DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIP 
WITH THE UNITED STATES.  AS HE LEAVES OFFICE, I WOULD LIKE 
TO EXPRESS PUBLICLY, AND ON BEHALF OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, 
MY GRATITUDE TO HIM FOR YEARS OF SUSTAINED COMMITMENT TO 
WORLD PEACE, AND MY PERSONAL RESPECT FOR HIS INTELLECT, 
VISION AND COURAGE. 

PRESIDENT GORBACHEV IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ONE OF THE MOST 
IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS OF THIS CENTURY--THE REVOLUTIONARY 
TRANSFORMATION OF A TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIP AND THE 
LIBERATION OF HIS PEOPLE FROM ITS SMOTHERING EMBRACE.  HIS 
PERSONAL COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRATIC AND ECONOMIC REFORM 
THROUGH PERESTROIKA AND GLASNOST--A COMMITMENT WHICH 
DEMANDED THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF POLITICAL AND PERSONAL 
INGENUITY AND COURAGE--PERMITTED THE PEOPLES OF RUSSIA AND 
OTHER REPUBLICS TO CAST ASIDE DECADES OF DARK OPPRESSION 
AND PUT IN PLACE THE FOUNDATIONS OF FREEDOM. 

WORKING WITH PRESIDENT REAGAN, MYSELF AND OTHER ALLIED 
LEADERS, PRESIDENT GORBACHEV ACTED BOLDLY AND DECISIVELY 
TO END THE BITTER DIVISIONS OF THE COLD WAR AND 
CONTRIBUTED TO THE REMAKING OF A EUROPE WHOLE AND FREE. 
HIS AND FOREIGN MINISTER EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE'S "NEW 
THINKING" IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS PERMITTED THE UNITED STATES 
AND THE SOVIET UNION TO MOVE FROM CONFRONTATION TO 
PARTNERSHIP IN THE SEARCH FOR PEACE ACROSS THE GLOBE. 
TOGETHER WE NEGOTIATED HISTORIC REDUCTIONS IN CHEMICAL, 
NUCLEAR AND CONVENTIONAL FORCES AND REDUCED THE RISK OF A 
NUCLEAR CONFLICT. 

WORKING TOGETHER, WE HELPED THE PEOPLE OF EASTERN EUROPE 
WIN THEIR LIBERTY AND THE GERMAN PEOPLE THEIR GOAL OF 
UNITY IN PEACE AND FREEDOM.  OUR PARTNERSHIP LED TO 
UNPRECEDENTED COOPERATION IN REPELLING IRAQI AGGRESSION IN 
KUWAIT, IN BRINGING PEACE TO NICARAGUA AND CAMBODIA  AND 
INDEPENDENCE TO NAMIBIA.  AND OUR WORK CONTINUES AS WE 
SEEK A LASTING AND JUST PEACE BETWEEN ISRAELIS AND ARABS 
IN THE MIDDLE EAST  AND AN END TO THE CONFLICT IN 
AFGHANISTAN. 

PRESIDENT GORBACHEV'S PARTICIPATION IN THESE HISTORIC 
EVENTS IS HIS LEGACY TO HIS COUNTRY AND TO THE WORLD. 
THIS RECORD ASSURES HIM AN HONORED PLACE IN HISTORY AND, 
MOST IMPORTANTLY FOR THE FUTURE, ESTABLISHES A SOLID BASIS 
FROM WHICH THE UNITED STATES AND THE WEST CAN WORK IN 
EQUALLY CONSTRUCTIVE WAYS WITH HIS SUCCESSORS. 

END TEXT OF PRESIDENT'S FAREWELL STATEMENT TO GORBACHEV. 
 
KANTER 

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