US embassy cable - 91MADRID12971

SPAIN: 1991 ANNUAL TERRORISM REPORT

Identifier: 91MADRID12971
Wikileaks: View 91MADRID12971 at Wikileaks.org
Origin: Embassy Madrid
Created: 1991-11-12 18:01:00
Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
Tags: PTER PGOV KPRP SP
Redacted: This cable was not redacted by Wikileaks.
R 121801Z NOV 91
FM AMEMBASSY MADRID
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 8622
INFO AMCONSUL BILBAO
AMCONSUL BARCELONA
UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 MADRID 12971 
 
 
S/CT FOR BREELAND 
 
E.O. 12356: N/A 
TAGS: PTER, PGOV, KPRP, SP 
SUBJECT: SPAIN: 1991 ANNUAL TERRORISM REPORT 
 
REF: STATE 346420 
 
1.  THE FOLLOWING REPORT IS EMBASSY'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE 
ANNUAL TERRORISM REPORT FOR SPAIN FOR 1991.  RESPONSES ARE 
KEYED TO THE QUESTIONS POSED IN REFTEL. 
 
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A. GOS PROSECUTIONS INVOLVING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND 
SIGNIFICANT ACTS OF DOMESTIC TERRORISM 
- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
2. TERRORIST ATTACKS IN SPAIN INCREASED DRAMATICALLY IN 1991, 
LEAVING MORE VICTIMS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE YEAR THAN IN ALL 
OF 1990.  THE TWO MAJOR TERRORIST GROUPS ARE THE EXTREMIST 
BASQUE SEPARATIST GROUP "EUSKADI TA ASKATASUNA" (ETA), OR THE 
BASQUE HOMELAND AND LIBERTY MOVEMENT, AND THE SMALLER, RADICAL 
ANTI-CAPITALIST GROUP "FIRST OF OCTOBER ANTI-FASCIST RESISTANCE 
GROUP" (GRAPO).  ETA'S PRINCIPAL INTERNATIONAL CONNECTION IS TO 
BASQUES RESIDENT IN FRANCE.  THE "ITINERANT COMMAND" WITHIN 
ETA, DISMANTLED IN 1990 THROUGH GOS/GOF COOPERATION, WAS 
COMPOSED OF FRENCH BASQUES OR SPANISH BASQUE RESIDENTS IN 
FRANCE.  ETA BRANCHED OUT IN 1991 FROM 1989-90 ATTACKS AGAINST 
SPANISH RELATED TARGETS IN THE NETHERLANDS TO TARGETS IN ITALY 
AND GERMANY.  WHEN THE ITALIAN TERRORIST GROUP "FALANGE ARMADA" 
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR 1991 BOMBINGS IN ROME AND MILAN, IT 
SAID THAT IT ACTED ON ETA'S BEHALF.  GRAPO ALSO HAS CONTACTS 
WITH FRANCE, AND SOME OF ITS LEADERS ARE BELIEVED TO BE 
RESIDENT THERE. 
 
3. TWO SMALLER SPANISH TERRORIST GROUPS WERE ALSO ACTIVE IN 
1991:  THE BASQUE ANTI-CAPITALIST TERRORIST GROUP "IRAULTZA," 
WHICH HAD BEEN DORMANT FOR SOME MONTHS (AND WHICH HAS TARGETED 
AMERICAN BUSINESSES IN THE PAST), AND THE GUERRILLA ARMY OF THE 
FREE GALICIAN PEOPLE (EGPGC).   A THIRD TERRORIST GROUP, "TERRA 
LLIURE," A SMALL CATALAN SEPARATIST GROUP ALREADY SIGNIFICANTLY 
WEAKENED, PUBLICLY RENOUNCED THE USE OF TERRORISM IN 1991 AND 
AFFILIATED ITSELF WITH A SMALL REGIONALIST PARTY.  IT MAY 
DEVELOP NON-VIOLENT PROTESTS DURING THE OLYMPIC GAME PERIOD. 
 
4. THE "GAL" (ANTI-TERRORIST LIBERATION GROUP) TRIAL OF TWO 
EX-NATIONAL POLICE OFFICIALS FOR ORGANIZING ASSASSINATIONS OF 
ETA MEMBERS IN FRANCE CONCLUDED THIS SUMMER, WITH BOTH MEN 
RECEIVING STIFF PRISON SENTENCES, EACH TOTALLING OVER 100 
YEARS. 
 
5. PRE-TRIAL INVESTIGATIONS ARE PROCEEDING AGAINST A NUMBER OF 
JAILED DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL TERRORISTS; BUT THE CRIMINAL 
PROSECUTION PROCESS TENDS TO BE SLOW.  SPANISH LAW AUTHORIZES 
PREVENTIVE DETENTION OF ALLEGED TERRORISTS FOR UP TO TWO YEARS 
AND AN EXTENSION OF TWO YEARS UPON A JUDICIAL DETERMINATION OF 
PROBABLE CAUSE, WHILE INVESTIGATIONS ARE PROCEEDING.  THE GAL 
DEFENDANTS, FOR EXAMPLE, WERE UNDER DETENTION FOR THREE YEARS 
BEFORE THEIR TRIAL.  SPANISH PROSECUTORS ALSO ROUTINELY SEEK 
LENGTHY PRISON SENTENCES; BUT THE MAXIMUM TIME SERVED, EVEN IN 
CONVICTIONS FOR MULTIPLE CRIMES, CANNOT BE MORE THAN 30 YEARS. 
 
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B. GOS EXTRADITIONS AND EXTRADITION REQUESTS 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - 
 
6. ETA TERRORISTS RESIDE IN MANY COUNTRIES, AMONG THEM CAPE 
VERDE, CUBA, THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, ECUADOR, FRANCE, SAO TOME 
E PRINCIPE, AND VENEZUELA.  OFTEN, THEY RESIDE ABROAD IN EXILE 
BY AGREEMENT BETWEEN SPAIN AND HOST GOVERNMENTS. 
 
7. DURING 1991, THE GOS CONTINUED ITS VIGOROUS EFFORTS TO 
EXTRADITE ETA TERRORISTS FROM ABROAD, ESPECIALLY FROM FRANCE, 
BUT WITH LITTLE SUCCESS.  PROCEDURAL EXTRADITION PROBLEMS 
BETWEEN THE GOF AND GOS CONTINUED TO HAMPER BILATERAL 
COOPERATION.  FOR EXAMPLE, A PROCEDURAL ERROR REQUIRED THE GOF 
TO RELEASE AN ETA OPERATIVE, ANTONIO GABIOLA GOYOGANA, IN 
JULY.  THE MAY 1990 EXTRADITION FROM FRANCE OF JOSE RAMON 
MARTINEZ DE LA PUENTE CONTINUES TO BE THE SOLE EXTRADITION FROM 
FRANCE OF A RELATIVELY HIGH RANKING ETA MEMBER. 
 
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C. IMPEDIMENTS TO PROSECUTION OR EXTRADITION 
- - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
8. THE PRINCIPAL IMPEDIMENT TO EXTRADITION FROM SPAIN IS THAT 
EXTRADITION WILL NOT BE GRANTED IF THE PERSON WOULD BE SUBJECT 
TO THE DEATH PENALTY.  THIS PROBLEM IS HANDLED BY AN 
UNDERTAKING FROM THE REQUESTING COUNTRY THAT THE DEATH PENALTY 
WILL NOT BE SOUGHT IN THE CASE IN QUESTION. 
 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
D. OTHER RESPONSES TO COMBAT TERRORISM 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
9. THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT STRONGLY AND CONSISTENTLY OPPOSES 
TERRORISM, EVEN WHEN USED TO COMBAT TERRORISM, AS DEMONSTRATED 
BY THE GAL PROSECUTION.   TERRORIST ACTS ARE VEHEMENTLY, 
UNAMBIGUOUSLY, AND REPEATEDLY CONDEMNED BY HIGH RANKING GOS 
OFFICIALS. 
 
10. SPAIN IS NOT ONLY CONTINUING ITS STRONG CAMPAIGN AGAINST 
DOMESTIC TERRORISM, BUT HAS STEPPED UP ITS EFFORTS TO IMPROVE 
COUNTER-TERRORISM READINESS.  THE GOS RECOGNIZES THAT THERE 
WILL BE AN INCREASED RISK OF TERRORISM IN 1992 DIRECTED AGAINST 
THE OLYMPIC GAMES IN BARCELONA AND ITS SATELLITE LOCATIONS, THE 
WORLD'S FAIR IN SEVILLE, AND EVENTS CELEBRATING THE DISCOVERY 
OF THE AMERICAS. 
 
11. THE GOS IS CONTINUING ITS POLICY OF DISPERSING ETA AND 
GRAPO PRISONERS, TO ISOLATE THEM FROM SUPPORTERS AND MAKE 
RESCUE ATTEMPTS MORE DIFFICULT.   ETA AND GRAPO HAVE RESPONDED 
BY STEPPING UP ATTACKS AGAINST PRISON AUTHORITIES.  IN 1991, 
GRAPO ASSASSINATED A DOCTOR WHO TREATED GRAPO PRISONERS ON 
HUNGER STRIKE. 
 
12. THE GOS IS ALSO CONTINUING ITS REINSERTION PROGRAM, UNDER 
WHICH A PRISONER CONVICTED OF TERRORISM MAY RECEIVE LIMITED 
IMMUNITY IF HE RENOUNCES THE USE OF FORCE. 
 
13. THE GOS HAS MADE JUDICIAL REFORM ONE OF ITS PRIORITIES AND 
HAS INTRODUCED A BILL TO STRENGTHEN THE CRIMINAL CODE.  ONE NEW 
PROPOSAL WOULD REQUIRE ANYONE CONVICTED OF TERRORISM TO 
COMPLETE HIS/HER FULL SENTENCE, WITH NO TIME OFF FOR GOOD 
BEHAVIOR.  BECAUSE OF THE 30-YEAR LIMITATION ON PRISON 
SENTENCES SERVED, THE MAJOR IMPACT OF THIS CHANGE WOULD FALL ON 
THOSE RECEIVING SHORTER SENTENCES, SUCH AS MINOR ACCOMPLICES, 
DISCOURAGING ASSISTANCE TO TERRORISTS. 
 
14. SPANISH LAW PROHIBITS THE PAYMENT OF RANSOM TO TERRORISTS, 
CONSIDERING SUCH PAYMENT COLLABORATION.  ONE BUSINESSMAN 
KIDNAPPED IN LATE 1990 WAS RELEASED BY ETA IN FEBRUARY 1991, 
REPORTEDLY UPON PAYMENT OF A RANSOM BY HIS FAMILY, BUT NO 
PROSECUTIONS HAVE BEEN ANNOUNCED, UNLIKE A SIMILAR CASE IN 
1990. 
 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
E. MAJOR COUNTERTERRORISM EFFORTS OF 1991 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
15. SPAIN COORDINATES ITS COUNTERTERRORIST ACTIVITIES THROUGH 
THE EC'S TREVI GROUP AND BILATERALLY WITH MANY NATIONS, 
INCLUDING THE U.S.  BILATERAL ANTI-TERRORISM COOPERATION WITH 
FRANCE CONTINUES TO IMPROVE AND HAS DELIVERED SOME IMPORTANT 
SUCCESSES AGAINST ETA IN FRANCE. 
 
16. DOMESTICALLY, GOS EFFORTS HAVE FOCUSED ON ETA, AS THE MOST 
SOPHISTICATED AND LETHAL OF THE DOMESTIC TERRORIST GROUPS, AND 
GRAPO.  AS IN 1990, COOPERATION BETWEEN THE NATIONAL POLICE AND 
CIVIL GUARD CONTINUES TO BE A GOS FOCUS FOR IMPROVEMENT.  ONE 
STEP IN THIS DIRECTION IN 1991 WAS TO RESTRUCTURE THE CIVIL 
GUARD TO MORE CLOSELY PARALLEL THE ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL 
POLICE. 
 
17. IN THE SUMMER OF 1991, ETA AGAIN ANNOUNCED A BOMBING 
CAMPAIGN AGAINST DESIGNATED RAIL LINES, IN AN ATTEMPT TO 
DISRUPT HOLIDAY TRAVEL EMBARRASS THE GOS.  THE GOS MOVED 
QUICKLY AND DECISIVELY TO AVOID PUBLIC PANIC AND LIMIT 
INCONVENIENCE, ALTHOUGH THIS REQUIRED A HEAVY COMMITMENT OF 
PERSONNEL AND RESOURCES.  THREE BOMBS EXPLODED ON RAILWAY 
LINES, WITH LIGHT MATERIAL AND NO HUMAN CASUALITIES. 
 
18. DURING THE GULF WAR, THE GOS TOOK IMMEDIATE STEPS TO 
INCREASE SECURITY AROUND HIGH RISK TARGETS AND DISCOURAGE ANY 
ATTEMPTED MIDDLE EASTERN TERRORIST ACTIVITIES IN SPAIN.  THE 
GOS ALSO TOOK SIMILAR SPECIAL MEASURES TO PROVIDE SECURITY 
DURING THE 1991 MIDDLE EAST PEACE CONFERENCE IN MADRID. 
 
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F. GOS SUPPORT FOR INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
19. THE GOS DOES NOT SUPPORT, FINANCIALLY OR DIPLOMATICALLY, 
INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ACTIVITIES.  THE PLO MAINTAINS A 
REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE IN MADRID, BUT THAT OFFICE DOES NOT HAVE 
DIPLOMATIC STATUS.  IN THE UNITED NATIONS, THE GOS HAS OPPOSED 
OBSERVER STATUS FOR THE PLO, AND THE GOS ENFORCES EC SANCTIONS 
AGAINST LIBYA. 
 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
G. PUBLIC STATEMENTS SUPPORTING TERRORISM 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
20. THE GOES DOES NOT ISSUE PUBLIC STATEMENTS IN SUPPORT OF 
TERRORISM OR OF TERRORIST SUPPORTING COUNTRIES ON TERRORISM 
ISSUES. 
 
- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
H. CHANGES IN SPANISH ATTITUDES TOWARDS TERRORISM 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 
21. THE AWARENESS OF THE THREAT POSED BY MIDDLE EASTERN 
TERRORISTS GREW IN 1991, AS SPAIN PARTICIPATED IN THE 
INTERNATIONAL COALITION AGAINST IRAQI AGGRESSION AND HOSTED THE 
MIDDLE EAST PEACE CONFERENCE. 
 
 
CASEY 

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