US embassy cable - 90STATE48186

AFRICA IN THE U.S. PRESS - FEBRUARY 13, 1990

Identifier: 90STATE48186
Wikileaks: View 90STATE48186 at Wikileaks.org
Origin: Secretary of State
Created: 1990-02-14 00:36:00
Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
Tags: OPRC XA
Redacted: This cable was not redacted by Wikileaks.
P 140036Z FEB 90 ZEX
FM SECSTATE WASHDC
TO ALL AFRICAN DIPLOMATIC POSTS PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY BONN PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY BRASILIA PRIORITY
AMCONSUL DURBAN PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY BRUSSELS PRIORITY
AMCONSUL JOHANNESBURG PRIORITY
USOFFICE WINDHOEK PRIORITY 
AMEMBASSY CAIRO PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY DAKAR PRIORITY
USMISSION GENEVA PRIORITY
USINT HAVANA PRIORITY
AMCONSUL KADUNA PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY LISBON PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY LONDON PRIORITY
AMCONSUL LUBUMBASHI PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY LUSAKA PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY MALABO PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY MAPUTO PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY MOSCOW PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY PARIS PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY RIYADH PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY ROME PRIORITY
AMEMBASSY TOKYO PRIORITY
USMISSION USNATO PRIORITY
USMISSION USUN NEW YORK PRIORITY
USCINCEUR VAILHINGEN GE/ECJ4-SA/ECJ5-01
WHITE HOUSE PRIORITY 0000
USIA WASHDC PRIORITY  
UNCLAS STATE 048186 
 
FROM AF/P: INFORM CONSULS AND PAOS 
 
E.O. 12356: N/A 
TAGS: OPRC, XA 
SUBJECT: AFRICA IN THE U.S. PRESS - FEBRUARY 13, 1990 
 
BRUSSELS PLEASE PASS USEC 
CAPE TOWN FOR EMBASSY 
NAIROBI PLEASE PASS MOMBASA 
RIYADH ALSO FOR AMB. FREEMAN 
ROME ALSO FOR VATICAN 

 
THE NEW YORK TIMES 

IN ALMOST EVERY RESPECT, THE NELSON MANDELA WHO WALKED OUT 
OF VICTOR VERSTER PRISON FARM SUNDAY MORNING APPEARED TO 
RESEMBLE CLOSELY THE IMPRESSIVE FIGURE DESCRIBED IN RECENT 
YEARS BY THE DOZENS OF PEOPLE WHO VISITED HIM IN PRISON, 
JOHN BURNS WRITES.  BECAUSE THOSE VISITORS HAD DESCRIBED 
MANDELA IN GLOWING TERMS - A MAN OF UNUSUAL MEMORY AND 
GREAT PERSONAL WARMTH, EVEN TOWARD HIS CAPTORS, REPORTERS 
WAITING TO SEE HIM ON SUNDAY WERE WATCHING FOR FEET OF 
CLAY.  BUT THERE WERE FEW WHO SAID THEY FOUND THEM. 
ADDRESSING A PRESS CONFERENCE IN ARCHBISHOP TUTU'S CAPE 
TOWN GARDEN ON MONDAY, MANDELA APPEARED MODEST, 
SOFT-SPOKEN, ANALYTICAL YET GENEROUS IN HIS POLITICAL 
OBSERVATIONS AND FRIENDLY.  EVEN THOUGH HIS NEWSPAPERS AND 
MAGAZINES WERE HEAVILY CENSORED UNTIL THE MID-1980S, HE 
SHOWED A BROAD GRASP OF EVENTS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE SOUTH 
AFRICA.  IN MONDAY'S PRESS CONFERENCE, HE DESCRIBED SOME OF 
HIS CAPTORS AS GOOD MEN.  "THAT HAS WIPED OUT ANY 
BITTERNESS A MAN COULD HAVE," HE SAID.  P. A17; 

BLACK SOUTH AFRICANS IN THE NEW YORK AREA SAID IN 
INTERVIEWS YESTERDAY THAT THE RELEASE OF NELSON MANDELA 
IMPROVED THE PROSPECTS FOR NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE SAG AND 
THE ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT, ERIC PACE REPORTS.  SOME SAID 
THAT MANDELA'S RETURN TO THE POLITICAL SCENE WOULD INCREASE 
COHESIVENESS WITHIN THE ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT.  OTHERS 
INTERPRETED THE RELEASE AS ACKNOWLEDGMENT BY THE SAG OF THE 
STRENGTH AND PIVOTAL ROLE OF THE ANC.  SELOKA PHIRWA, A 
MEMBER OF THE ANC'S OBSERVER MISSION TO THE UN AND OTHERS, 
SAID THAT WHILE RELEASE OF MANDELA WAS A "BOLD STEP," OTHER 
CONDITIONS SET BY THE ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT FOR 
NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE SAG "REMAINED UNFILLED."  THE LABOR 
SECRETARY OF THE PAC, LESOANA MAKHANDA, SAID MANDELA WAS 
BEING RELEAED "MERELY INTO A LARGER JAIL, WHICH IS THE REST 
OF SOUTH AFRICA."  P. A17; 

WHILE MILLIONS OF PEOPLE ACROSS SOUTH AFRICA CELEBRATED THE 
RELEASE OF MANDELA, THE QUESTION RAISED BY SUPPORTERS AND 
OPPONENTS ALIKE IS WHETHER PRESIDENT DE KLERK, IN FREEING 
MANDELA, HAS UNLEASED A CHAIN OF EVENTS THAT HE WILL NOT BE 
ABLE TO CONTROL.  PEOPLE ARE WONDERING WHETHER DE KLERK 
WILL TURN OUT TO BE THE GORBACHEV OF SOUTH AFRICA, A 
REFORMER WHO SETS OUT ON A MODEST COURSE OF CHANGE ONLY TO 
FIND THAT HE HAS UNCAGED FORCES THAT MOVE THROUGH SOCIETY 
IN UNPREDICTABLE WAYS, FORCES THAT EVEN THREATEN TO 
OVERWHELM HIM.  WHILE CP LEADER ANDRIES TREURNICHT TALKED 
OF THE SAG HAVING SURRENDERED TO A MARXIST REVOLUTION, 
MODERATES AMONG WHITES AND BLACKS AGREED THAT THE SOUTH 
AFRICA OF YESTERDAY, IN WHICH WHITES DECREED FOR BLACKS, IS 
ALMOST SURELY GONE FOREVER.  THE LIBERAL "WEEKLY MAIL" 
SAID:  "IF THE GOVERNMENT STILL BELIEVES IT CAN CONTROL THE 
PROCESS IT HAS STARTED, IT IS KIDDING ITSELF."  JOHN BURNS 
REPORTS.  P. A16; 

AN EDITORIAL, "SUNRISE IN SOUTH AFRICA," STATES THAT THE 
JAIL THAT OPENED SUNDAY FOR NELSON MANDELA "BEGAN TO FREE A 
NATION EVEN AS IT FREED A MAN."  MANDELA ROSE TO A 
"REMARKABLE OCCASION:"  HE PRAISED HIS FOLLOWERS FOR THEIR 
STEADFASTNESS, BUT REMINDED THEM THAT DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES 
HAD TO BE RESPECTED; HE PRAISED F.W. DE KLERK AS "A MAN OF 
INTEGRITY; HE DEFENDED THE ARMED STRUGGLE, BUT ALSO SAID HE 
HOPED A NEW CLIMATE WOULD END THE NEED FOR A "DEFENSIVE" 
RESPONSE.  THE EDITORIAL GOES ON TO SAY THAT GLOBAL 
SANCTIONS HAVE HASTENED REFORMS, INCLUDING THE RELEASE OF 
MANDELA AND THE UNBANNING OF THE ANC.  "THESE STEPS ARE A 
VINDICATION OF SANCTIONS, NOT AN ARGUMENT FOR REPEALING 
THEM."  AT THE SAME TIME, THE EDITORIAL SAYS BUSH HAS TAKEN 
"THE RIGHT FIRST STEP" IN INVITING BOTH DE KLERK AND 
MANDELA TO WASHINGTON AND THAT "IT MAY MAKE SENSE TO EASE 
SOME PENALTIES AS PRETORIA MOVES FORWARD, THEREBY PROVIDING 
INCENTIVES FOR FURTHER CHANGE WHILE KEEPING THE LEGISLATION 
IN FORCE."  WHILE CONCEDING THE SAG STILL HAS TO TAKE OTHER 
STEPS TO CREATE A CLIMATE FOR NEGOTIATIONS AND THAT IT 
WON'T BE EASY TO MESH THE GOALS OF THE SAG AND THE 
ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT, EVEN AFTER NEGOTIATIONS HAVE 
BEGUN, THE EDITORIAL ENDS ON AN UPBEAT NOTE:  "IN CAPE TOWN 
AS ELSEWHERE . . . THE UNTHINKABLE HAS BECOME IMAGINABLE 
AND A STRUGGLE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS BEGUN BY NAMELESS ORDINARY 
PEOPLE HAS FOUND CHAMPIONS IN LEADERS LIKE MIKHAIL 
GORBACHEV, LECH WELESA, VACLEV HAVEL, F.W. DE KLERK AND, 
NOW, NELSON MANDELA."  P. A24; 

IN AN OP-ED PIECE, TONY LEWIS WRITES OF MANDELA'S WALK TO 
FREEDOM:  "NOT MANY EVENTS IN THE WORLD HAVE SUCH SYMBOLIC 
EMOTIONAL POWER."  MANDELA'S SURVIVAL OF 27 YEARS IN PRISON 
IS TESTIMONY "THAT HIS CAUSE - NON-RACIAL DEMOCRACY IN 
SOUTH AFRICA - COULD NOT BE CRUSHED."  THE ENTHUSIASTIC 
RESPONSE OF SOUTH AFRICANS TO A FREE MANDELA IS AN 
EXPRESSION OF A REALITY THE SAG HAS TRIED TO SUPPRESS FOR 
MANY YEARS:  "THAT BLACKS, 75 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION, 
WANT TO HAVE THEIR PART IN RUNNING THE COUNTRY."  LEWIS 
GOES ON TO SAY THAT DE KLERK MUST HAVE UNDERSTOOD THE 
ENORMOUS EMOTIONS AND EXPECTATIONS WHICH WOULD BE AROUSED 
BY MANDELA'S RELEASE AND HE MUST BE CREDITED WITH "RARE 
COURAGE."  WHILE THERE ARE STILL DIFFICULTIES, INCLUDING 
THE RESISTANCE OF RIGHT-WING WHITES TO ANY CHANGE, THE 
REACTION OF WHITES - FROM THE GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED SABC TO 
PIK BOTHA AND WHITES IN SUNDAY'S CROWD ON THE ROAD TO CAPE 
TOWN - HAS BEEN "SURPRISINGLY FRIENDLY" TO MANDELA.  LEWIS 
CONCLUDES THAT INSTEAD OF DWELLING ON APARTHEID'S PAST 
EVILS, "IT IS BETTER TO THINK ABOUT THE POSSIBILITIES 
AHEAD.  WHAT A DIFFERENCE A NEW SOUTH AFRICA COULD MAKE TO 
ITSELF AND ITS CONTINENT."  P. A25; 

AP REPORTS PLATINUM FUTURES PRICES JUMPED YESTERDAY AFTER 
NELSON MANDELA ENDORSED ANTI-APARTHEID VIOLENCE AND 
NATIONALIZATION OF SOUTH AFRICA'S MINING INDUSTRY, SENDING 
FEAR ABOUT SUPPLIES THROUGH THE PRECIOUS METALS MARKETS. 
BERNARD SAVAIKO, SENIOR METALS ANALYST AT PAINE WEBBER 
INC., SAID MINE SABOTAGE POSES OBVIOUS PRODUCTION PROBLEMS, 
WHILE THE ANC'S CALL FOR NATIONALIZATION OF THE MINES 
"LEAVES OPEN THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE FLOW OF SUPPLY WILL 
DIMINISH BECAUSE OF THE INEFFICIENCIES OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED 
MINING OPERATIONS AS OPPOSED TO THOSE CONTROLLED BY FREE 
ENTERPRISE."  SOUTH AFRICA IS THE WORLD'S LARGEST PRODUCER 
OF PLATINUM AND GOLD.  P. D17; 

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE WORLD'S 42 POOREST NATIONS MET IN 
DHAKA, BANGLADESH OVER THE WEEKEND TO DEVISE NEW WAYS TO 
CONVINCE RICHER COUNTRIES THAT NEARLY HALF A BILLION PEOPLE 
NEED HELP DESPERATELY.  THIS FIRST MINISTERIAL MEETING OF 
LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IS EXPECTED TO RESTATE FORCEFULLY 
A PLEA THAT AID DONORS AND INTERNATIONAL LENDING 
ORGANIZATINS TREAT THE POOREST NATIONS SEPARATELY FROM THE 
REST OF THE DEVELOPING WORLD.  THE GROUP OF 42 - OF WHICH 
28 ARE IN AFRICA - WILL MEET WITH DONOR NATIONS IN GENEVA 
AT THE END OF MARCH IN PREPARATION FOR A LARGER 
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE IN PARIS IN SEPTEMBER ON THE 
PLIGHT OF THE MOST DISADVANTAGED COUNTRIES.  BARBARA 
CROSSETTE REPORTS.  P. A3; 

 
THE WALL STREET JOURNAL 

IN A LENGTHY ANALYSIS WRITTEN FROM THE ERITREAN FRONT, 
GERALDINE BROOKS WRITES THAT THE STRUGGLE IN ERITREA, AFTER 
28 YEARS, MAY BE NEAR A CLIMAX.  OPPOSING BLACK AFRICA'S 
BEST-EQUIPPED ARMY, THAT OF ETHIOPIA, EPLF GUERRILLAS SEEK 
INDEPENDENCE FOR AN ENGLAND-SIZE STRIP OF RED SEA COAST 
THAT IS HOME TO 3.5 MILLION PEOPLE.  ETHIOPIA ANNEXED IT IN 
1962.  THE GUERRILLAS HAVE BEEN FIGHTING FOR IT EVER 
SINCE.  A RAPID STRING OF GUERRILLA VICTORIES FORCED THE 
GPDRE INTO PEACE TALKS MEDIATED BY JIMMY CARTER LAST FALL. 
IN THE PAST WEEK, THE EPLF ADVANCED AGAIN IN FIERCE 
FIGHTING AROUND THE RED SEA PORT OF MASSAWA.  THEY CLAIM TO 
HAVE CAPTURED THE PORT, WHILE THE ETHIOPIAN GOVERNMNENT 
ONLY SAYS THAT HEAVY FIGHTING AT THE PORT CONTINUES.  AN 
ERITREAN VICTORY WOULD CULMINATE A STRUGGLE IN AFRICA'S 
LONGEST WAR, BUT IT WOULD BE A VICTORY THAT HARDLY ANY OF 
ERITREA'S NEIGHBORS SEEM TO DESIRE.  AFRICAN NATIONS WORRY 
THAT ONE SECESSIONIST VICTORY WOULD PUT THE WHOLE 
CONTINENT'S MAP AT RISK.  ISRAEL PREFERS THE PREDOMINANTLY 
CHRISTIAN ETHIOPIAN GOVERNMENT TO THE ARAB ENCIRCLEMENT IT 
FEARS WOULD FOLLOW A WIN BY PARTLY MOSLEM ERITREA.  WAR AND 
PERIODIC FAMINE NOTWITHSTANDING, THE ERITREANS HAVE MANAGED 
TO BUILD A COMPLEX SOCIETY ON THEIR CAPTURED LAND. 
SPENDING TWO WEEKS WITH THE EPLF, BROOKS SAW AN UNDERGROUND 
MOVEMENT THAT IS LITERALLY THAT:  SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, 
FACTORIES AND "GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS" ARE GOUGED OUT OF 
ROCK OR BUILT IN EARTHEN TUNNELS TO HIDE FROM THE ENEMY'S 
MIGS.  THE EPLF'S LEADER, ISAIS AFEWERKE, CLAIMS THE 
MOVEMENT IS NOT "MARXIST."  "THERE ARE MANY THINGS WE DO 
COLLECTIVELY, NOT BECAUSE WE WANT IT TO BE THAT WAY BUT 
BECAUSE WE DON'T HAVE ANY ALTERNATIVE," HE SAYS.  P. A1; 

AN EDITORIAL ASSERTS THAT WITH MANDELA'S WALK TO FREEDOM, 
"THE LEGEND ENDS AND THE HUMAN BEING COMES OUT."  MANDELA'S 
FIRST SPEECH IN CAPE TOWN, THE EDITORIAL GOES ON TO SAY, 
FAILED TO REASSURE NON-ANC MEMBERS THAT HE WANTS 
RECONCILIATION WITH ALL SOUTH AFRICANS.  HE FAILED TO 
MENTION ANY MODERATE BLACKS SUCH AS CHIEF BUTHELEZI, 
PROMISED TO CONTINUE THE "ARMED STRUGGLE" AND PRAISED THE 
SACP.  HE ALSO OPENED AND CLOSED HIS SPEECH IN XHOSA, THE 
LANGUAGE OF THE ANC'S DOMINANT ETHNIC GROUP.  THE EDITORIAL 
SUGGESTS THAT MANDELA WILL NEED TIME TO EVALUATE THE 
SITUATION IN TODAY'S SOUTH AFRICA, WHICH HAS CHANGED 
CONSIDERABLY IN THE YEARS HE WAS IN PRISON.  NOTING 
ECONOMIC PROGRESS BY BLACKS - 57 PERCENT OF ALL HOUSING 
PERMITS LAST YEAR WENT TO BLACKS, FOR EXAMPLE - THE 
EDITORIAL ASSERTS THAT THIS "SILENT REVOLUTION HAS NOT ONLY 
BEEN EFFECTIVE IN UNDERMINING APARTHEID, BUT HAS ALSO LED 
MANY BLACKS TO REVIEW THEIR POLITICS.  "THE ANC'S MOST 
RADICAL ELEMENTS MAY FIND LESS SUPPORT FOR SOCIALISM IN THE 
TOWNSHIPS THAN THEY EXPECT."  IF MANDELA DOES NOT TAKE THIS 
INTO ACCOUNT, HE COULD FIND DIFFICULTY IN PURSUING THE 
ANC'S AGENDA.  THE EDITORIAL CONCLUDES:  "THE ANC HAS 
ALWAYS ACTED AS IF NEGOTIATIONS WOULD BE CONDUCTED AROUND A 
SQUARE TABLE WITH TWO CHAIRS, ONE FOR THE ANC AND ONE FOR 
THE WHITES.  THE SOONER BOTH SIDES REALIZE THAT A ROUND 
TABLE WITH CHAIRS REPRESENTING MANY INTERESTS WILL BE 
NEEDED, THE MORE SMOOTHLY A TRANSITION TO A POST-APARTHEID 
SOUTH AFRICA IS LIKELY TO GO."  P. A20; 

INTERNATIONAL AID DONORS PLEDGED 27 MILLION DOLLARS TO HELP 
AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURS GET THEIR BUSINESSES OFF THE GROUND. 
THE AFRICA PROJECT DEVELOPMENT FACILITY SAID AFTER A 
MEETING WITH 14 WESTERN DONOR NATIONS AT THE WORLD BANK 
THAT IT AIMED TO FIND MORE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS OVER THE 
NEXT FIVE YEARS.  P. A16; 

 
WASHINGTON POST 

NELSON MANDELA TOOK A CONCILIATORY TONE TOWARD WHITE SOUTH 
AFRICANS IN A FIFTY MINUTE PRESS CONFERENCE FOLLOWING HIS 
RELEASE.  HE SAID THAT HE WANTED WHITE SOUTH AFRICANS WHO 
FEAR FOR THEIR SECURITY TO FEEL SAFE ABOUT THE PROSPECT OF 
BLACK-MAJORITY RULE, AND HE PREDICTED THAT NEGOTIATIONS ON 
THE NATION'S POLITICAL FUTURE WOULD BEGIN SOON.  HE ALSO 
SUGGESTED THAT THE ANC MIGHT STOP ITS ARMED STRUGGLE IF 
PRETORIA ENDED THE STATE OF EMERGENCY AND AGREED TO OTHER 
CONCESSIONS.  BUT EVEN AS HE TRIED TO CALM WHITES' FEARS, 
HE DECLARED SUPPORT YESTERDAY FOR NATIONALIZATION OF KEY 
SOUTH AFRICAN INDUSTRIES, SETTING OFF CONCERN IN THE 
BUSINESS WORLD.  GOLD PRICES FELL 4 PERCENT ON THE 
JOHANNESBURG STOCK EXCHANGE AND THE FINANCIAL RAND 
PLUMMETED 10 PERCENT.  VIOLENCE, FOLLOWING MANDELA'S 
RELEASE, WAS UP SHARPLY.  POLICE REPORTED 40 PEOPLE KILLED 
AND SCORES INJURED SINCE SUNDAY, INCLUDING 10 SHOT WHEN 
POLICE OPENED FIRE ON LOOTERS WHO BROKE AWAY FROM 
CELEBRATING CROWDS NEAR EAST LONDON ON SUNDAY.  IN CAPE 
TOWN, MANDELA FIELDED QUESTIONS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL 
PRESS CORPS.  HE SAID HE HAD BEEN "ABSOLUTELY SURPRISED" TO 
SEE SO MANY WHITES WELCOMING HIM SUNDAY ON THE SHORT DRIVE 
FROM THE PRISON INTO CAPE TOWN AND HE STRESSED THAT IF THE 
NATION'S 25 MILLION BLACK MAJORITY ASSUMES POWER, SOUTH 
AFRICA'S 5 MILLION WHITES NEED HAVE NO FEARS FOR THEIR 
FUTURE.  "THE ANC IS VERY MUCH CONCERNED TO ADDRESS THE 
QUESTION OF THE CONCERN OF WHITES OVER THE (BLACK) DEMAND 
OF ONE PERSON, ONE VOTE," HE SAID.  "THEY INSIST ON 
STRUCTURAL GUARANTEES TO ENSURE THAT THE REALIZATION OF 
THIS DEMAND DOES NOT RESULT IN THE DOMINATION OF WHITES BY 
BLACKS.  WE UNDERSTAND THOSE FEELINGS, AND THE ANC IS 
CONCERNED TO ADDRESS THAT PROBLEM AND TO FIND A SOLUTION 
WHICH WILL SUIT BOTH THE BLACKS AND WHITES OF THIS 
COUNTRY."  MANDELA HINTED THAT THE ANC IS CONSIDERING SOME 
RECIPROCAL MOVE FOLLOWING DE KLERK'S ACTIONS, BUT HE 
INDICATED THAT THIS COULD OCCUR ONLY IF THE GOVERNMENT ENDS 
THE STATE OF EMERGENCY AND RELEASES ALL POLITICAL 
PRISONERS.  HE REPEATED HIS SUPPORT FOR THE ANC'S 
COMMITMENT TO THE NATIONALIZATION OF THE MINES AND SIMILAR 
SECTORS.  WHEN PRESSED TO SAY WHETHER HE WAS A COMMUNIST, 
MANDELA REPLIED, "LET ME MAKE IT CLEAR.  I DO NOT BELONG TO 
ANY PARTY APART FROM THE ANC."  DAVID OTTAWAY REPORTS.  P. 
1; NYT. P. 1; CSM P. 1;  W.T.  P. A1; 

ON MANDELA'S RELEASE, MARY MCGRORY WRITES, "IN A SEASON OF 
STUNNING POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS, THE RELEASE OF NELSON 
MANDELA WAS IN A CLASS BY ITSELF, PARTAKING OF THE FALL OF 
THE BERLIN WALL AND THE SOVIET CEDING OF MONOPOLY POWER. 
MOST SPECTATORS AT THE GALLOPING HISTORY WE GET THESE DAYS 
EXPECTED SOUTH AFRICA TO BE THE LAST TO CHANGE OR GIVE UP 
ITS TITLE FOR INTRACTABILITY TO ISRAEL OR NORTHERN 
IRELAND."  MCGRORY CREDITS GIL KULICK OF THE CARNEGIE 
FOUNDATION FOR BEING ONE OF THE FIRST TO RECOGNIZE DE 
KLERK'S SINCERITY IN WANTING "A NEW AFRICA."  P. 2; 

IN AN EDITORIAL, THE POST EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT NELSON 
MANDELA'S TRIBUTE TO THE SOUTH AFRICAN COMMUNIST PARTY. 
THE EDITORIAL ASKS WHY COMMUNIST PARTY MEMBERS STILL 
DOMINATE THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE ANC AND WHY THEY 
EVIDENTLY ALSO HAVE A STRONG POSITION IN THE MASS 
DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT.  THE POST URGES THE ANC "TO ENSURE 
THAT THE BLACK LEADERSHIP IS NOT CAPTURED OR INFLUENCED BY 
A PARTY THAT IS A RELIC OF A CONSPIRATORIAL PAST."  P. 20; 

PRESIDENT BUSH INDICATED YESTERDAY THAT HE WILL NOT ASK 
CONGRESS TO CONSIDER LIFTING ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST 
SOUTH AFRICA IN RESPONSE TO THE RELEASE OF NELSON MANDELA, 
BUT HE ADDED THAT SOME OF THE SANCTIONS ARE 
"COUNTERPRODUCTIVE."  AT A WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE DEVOTED 
ALMOST ENTIRELY TO SOUTH AFRICA AND EAST-WEST RELATIONS, 
BUSH SAID MANDELA'S RELEASE WAS A "DRAMATIC SIGN" THAT 
SOUTH AFRICA IS MOVING TOWARD A MORE RACIALLY EQUITABLE 
SOCIETY.  ON SANCTIONS, THE PRESIDENT CITED THE CAAA AND 
SAID "I AM BOUND BY THE LAW...THE SANCTIONS REMAIN ON UNTIL 
THE SOUTH AFRICANS HAVE TAKEN CERTAIN (OTHER) STEPS" TOWARD 
RACIAL EQUALITY.  IN A TELEVISION INTERVIEW, HANK COHEN 
SAID THAT U.S. SANCTIONS PLAYED ONLY A SMALL ROLE IN 
MANDELA'S RELEASE AND THAT SOME "GESTURE" SHOULD BE MADE TO 
DE KLERK.  "WHAT WE REALLY CARE ABOUT IS ENCOURAGING 
FURTHER PROGRESS....IF THAT MEANS RELAXATION OF SANCTIONS, 
FINE."  ANN DEVROY REPORTS.  P. 14;  BALT. SUN  P. A1; 
W.T.  P. A1; 
 
JESSE JACKSON PRAISED PRESIDENT DE KLERK, COMPARING HIS 
RELEASE OF MANDELA WITH LINCOLN'S FREEING THE SLAVES. 
"THIS WAS A COURAGEOUS STEP FOR PRESIDENT DE KLERK," HE 
TOLD THE CAPE TOWN PRESS CLUB.  THE WINDOWS OF JACKSON'S 
MERCEDES WERE BROKEN AND THE ROOF CAVED IN AS CROWDS 
SWARMED OVER THE CAR MISTAKING HIM FOR MANDELA.  JACKSON 
WAS WAITING INSIDE CITY HALL WITH A SMALL GROUP OF SOUTH 
AFRICAN CIVIC AND CHURCH LEADERS WHEN MANDELA ARRIVED TO 
GIVE HIS FIRST SPEECH.  JACKSON, WHO'S VISIT HAS BEEN 
LARGELY OVERSHADOWED BY MANDELA'S RELEASE, HAS BEEN URGING 
BLACK OPPOSITION GROUPS TO STRIVE FOR UNITY AMONG 
THEMSELVES.  HE SAID THAT HE WAS CONVINCED AFTER MEETING 
WITH DE KLERK THAT THE PRESIDENT INTENDS TO "HONOR HIS 
WORD" AND CONTINUE HIS REFORMS.  HE ADDED THAT HE HAD A 
SENSE THAT DE KLERK WOULD LIFT THE STATE OF EMERGENCY 
SHORTLY.  DAVID OTTAWAY REPORTS.  P. 14; 

NELSON MANDELA AGREED TO SPEND LAST NIGHT AT AN UNDISCLOSED 
SITE NORTH OF JOHANNESBURG AFTER THE COMMITTEE OF BLACK 
LEADERS HANDLING HIS SCHEDULE DECIDED THAT THE HUGE CROWDS 
OF BOISTEROUS PEOPLE WAITING TO WELCOME HIM BACK TO HIS 
HOME POSED A THREAT TO HIS SAFETY.  FOR THE SECOND STRAIGHT 
DAY, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE POURED INTO THE STREETS TO 
CHEER AND DANCE IN CELEBRATION, WHILE TWO STADIUMS, WHERE 
MANDELA WAS SCHEDULED TO APPEAR, WERE SWAMPED BY 
UNMANAGEABLE CROWDS.  UNNERVED BY THE VIOLENCE THAT BROKE 
OUT AT MANDELA'S FIRST PUBLIC RALLY IN CAPE TOWN ON SUNDAY, 
THE COMMITTEE CANCELED BOTH OF MONDAY'S SCHEDULED 
APPEARANCES AND ANNOUNCED THAT MANDELA WOULD SPEAK TUESDAY 
IN THE COUNTRY'S LARGEST SOCCER STADIUM, JUST OUTSIDE 
SOWETO WHERE SECURITY COULD BE MORE EASILY ARRANGED.  THE 
GOVERNMENT CANNOT PROVIDE POLICE PROTECTION IN THE 
TOWNSHIPS WHERE POLICE ARE HATED, AND IT IS RELUCTANT TO 
ALLOW ARMED ANC MEMBERS TO GUARD MANDELA.  AS A RESULT, 
MANDELA HAS HARDLY ANY EFFECTIVE PROTECTION.  MEANWHILE, 
THE OVERALL LEVEL OF VIOLENCE IN THE COUNTRY HAS RISEN 
SHARPLY IN THE VIBRANT ATMOSPHERE FOLLOWING MANDELA'S 
LEASE.  ALLISTER SPARKS REPORTS.  P. 14;  BALT. SUN  P. 
A1;  W.T.  P. A1;  BALT. SUN  P. 2A; 

JACK ANDERSON AND DALE VAN ATTA REPORT THAT NELSON MANDELA 
OWES HIS FREEDOM IN LARGE PART TO EGYPTIAN MINISTER OF 
STATE, BOUTROS GHALI, WHO HAS BEEN NEGOTIATING IN SECRET 
FOR TWO YEARS TO FREE HIM AND ROLL BACK APARTHEID. 
ACCORDING TO ANDERSON AND VAN ATTA, GHALI KEPT HIS MEETINGS 
WITH SOUTH AFRICAN OFFICIALS QUIET AND HELD THEM IN NEUTRAL 
GROUND IN PARIS, CAIRO AND HARARE.  FIRST HE CONCENTRATED 
ON GETTING THE PAC AND ANC TO WORK TOGETHER.  EGYPT HAS A 
HISTORY OF FUNDING BOTH GROUPS.  THEN HE DREW THE SAG INTO 
THE TALKS.  P. B8; 

 
THE WASHINGTON TIMES 

KIDS FROM THE BEVERLY FARMS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN POTOMAC 
ARE PICTURED WAITING FOR THE ARRIVAL OF CONGO PRESIDENT 
DENIS SASSOU-NGUESSO AT THE WHITE HOUSE.  P. B1; 

AP REPORTS FROM JOHANNESBURG THAT WHEN MANDELA EXPRESSED 
SUPPORT YESTERDAY FOR NATIONALIZING THE MINES AND OTHER 
ASSETS, HE SHOCKED THE BUSINESS WORLD AND GOLD MINING 
STOCKS FELL 4 PERCENT ON THE JOHANNESBURG STOCK EXCHANGE. 
THE FINANCIAL RAND, A SPECIAL CURRENCY USED TO ENCOURAGE 
FOREIGN INVESTMENT, PLUMMENTED 10 PERCENT ON THE BLACK 
LEADER'S FIRST DAY OF FREEDOM.  GOLD PRICES ROSE IN THE 
U.S. AND EUROPE.  GAVIN RELLY, CHAIRMAN OF THE 
ANGLO-AMERICAN CORP. MINING CONGLOMERATE CALLED MANDELA'S 
RELEASE "A MAJOR STEP TOWARD NORMALIZING SOUTH AFRICA'S 
POLITICAL LIFE."  COMMENTING PRIVATELY ON MANDELA'S STANCE 
ON NATIONALIZATION, A BANK ECONOMIST SAID IT CAUSED 
"JITTERS AND UNCERTAINTY" AND "WILL DEFINITELY HAVE A 
NEGATIVE EFFECT ON FOREIGN PERCEPTIONS OF INVESTMENT IN 
SOUTH AFRICA, ON LOCAL BUSINSS CONFIDENCE AND ON PRIVATE 
FIXED INVESTMENT."  BUSINESS LEADERS ARE HOPEFUL THAT DE 
KLERK'S REFORMS AND CONCESSIONS WILL PERSUADE WESTERN 
COUNTRIES TO ABANDON OR EASE THE SANCTIONS IMPOSED IN 
RECENT YEARS.  WHEN DE KLERK LEGALIZED THE ANC, PM THATCHER 
CANCELED ACADEMIC AND CULTURAL EMBARGOES AND SHE NOW WANTS 
TO END A BAN ON NEW INVESTMENT.  P. A9; 

SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT DE KLERK HAS TAKEN A BOLD AND 
COURAGEOUS STEP IN RELEASING NELSON MANDELA.  CHRISTOPHER 
MATTHEWS, BUREAU CHIEF OF THE SAN FRANCISCO EXAMINER AND 
NATIONALLY SYNDICATED COLUMNIST, QUESTIONS WHAT WE 
AMERICANS CAN DO.  "LIKE THE REST OF THE WORLD, WE'VE BEEN 
CAUGHT FLAT-FOOTED BY MR. DE KLERK'S BOLDNESS.  AS SO OFTEN 
IN OUR DEALINGS WITH SOUTH AFRICA, WE FIND OURSELVES 
TONGUE-TIED."  HIS QUESTIONS ARE DO WE APPLAUD HIM FOR WHAT 
HE'S DONE OR DO WE CONDEMN HIM FOR WHAT HE HASN'T DONE?  DO 
WE CHEER OR SIT ON OUR HANDS?  MATTHEWS SAYS WE HAVE 
ALIENATED WHITES WITH OUR LIMITED SANCTIONS AND UNLIMITED 
MORAL POSTURING.  WE'VE TURNED OFF BLACKS BY "KEEPING OUR 
IDEALS IN THE BACK OF THE BUS WHILE SITTING OUR INTERESTS 
UP FRONT."  MATTHEWS REFLECTS BACK TO 1965 WHEN ROBERT F. 
KENNEDY ADDRESSED STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN 
AND FOUND COMMON GROUND.  HE IDENTIFIED NOT ONLY WITH THE 
ASPIRATIONS OF THE BLACK MAJORITY BUT WITH THE HISTORY AND 
FEARS OF THE AFRIKANERS WHO SETTLED THERE 300 YEARS AGO. 
MATTHEWS CALLS FOR THE CAREFUL USE OF THE CARROTS AND THE 
STICKS.  ECONOMIC SANCTIONS HAVE BEEN A USEFUL STICK AND 
THEIR ELIMINATION CAN BE A USEFUL CARROT.  WE SHOULD OFFER 
THE CARROT GLADLY -- NOT DANGLE IT.  HE CALLS FOR THE U.S. 
TO PROMOTE DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH AFRICA AND NOT PRESCRIBE IT. 
THE U.S. NEEDS TO SHOW BOTH COMPASSION AND SMART POLITICS. 
"FREEDOM IS TOO IMPORTANT TO PLAY HARD TO GET."  P. F1; 

AN EDITORIAL CARTOON SHOWS MANDELA'S FIST WITH THE CHAIN 
AROUND HIS WRIST BROKEN.  P. F2; 

WHEN MANDELA WALKED OUT OF VICTOR VERSTER PRISON SUNDAY HE 
GRADUATED FROM ICON TO LEADER.  THE NEXT FEW MONTHS WILL 
SHOW WHETHER HE IS "MADE OF THE SAME STUFF AS OTHER 
CHARISMATIC, WORLD-HISTORICAL FIGURES WHO DEFIED 
EXTRAORDINARY ODDS AND OBSTACLES TO LEAD THEIR PEOPLE 
UPWARD."  THERE ARE A NUMBER OF  DISADVANTAGES FACING 
MANDELA.  UNTIL 5-6 YEARS AGO, MANDELA WAS AN OBSCURE 
OPERATIVE OF AN UNDERGROUND RESISTANCE MOVEMENT.  HIS 
CAPACITIES FOR REAL LEADERSHIP REMAIN COMPLETELY UNTESTED. 
AMONG THE FACTORS WORKING AGAINST MANDELA ARE HIS AGE, THE 
FACTIONALISM WITHIN THE ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT ITSELF, AND 
MANDELA'S ABSENCE FROM THE SOCIETY FOR 27 YEARS.  QUESTIONS 
TO BE ASKED ARE:  HOW WEDDED IS MANDELA TO THE MARXIST 
IDEOLOGY, WHAT DID HE MEAN WHEN HE CALLED FOR "A 
FUNDAMENTAL RESTRUCTURING OF OUR POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC 
SYSTEMS TO ENSURE THAT THE INEQUALITIES OF APARTHEID ARE 
ADDRESSED?"  THE EDITORIAL URGES MANDELA TO TAKE A LONG 
VACATION INSIDE SOUTH AFRICA AND SEE WHAT IS REALLY 
HAPPENING IN HIS OWN COUNTRY AND WHAT HAS HAPPENED SINCE 
1964.  "IF MANDELA CLINGS TO THE LEFTIST ORTHODOXY HE HELD 
27 YEARS AGO, SOUTH AFRICAN BLACKS MAY BE FORCED TO TRADE 
THE OLD SHACKLES OF APARTHEID FOR NEW SHACKLES OF SOCIALIST 
POVERTY."  P. F2; 

 
THE BALTIMORE SUN 
 
A CARTOON SHOWS PRESIDENT F.W. DE KLERK BEING BITTEN BY A 
SOUTH AFRICAN CONSERVATIVE DOG WITH THE HEADLINE, "FREE 
F.W. DE KLERK"  P. 8A; 

AN EDITORIAL URGES THE U.S. TO DECIDE ON AN APPROPRIATE 
RESPONSE TO ENCOURAGE CONTINUED MOVEMENT NOW THAT NELSON 
MANDELA HAS BEEN RELEASED AND OTHER SIGNS OF POLITICAL 
PROCESS ARE VISIBLE IN SOUTH AFRICA.  THE QUESTION 
CONFRONTING THE U.S. IS SHOULD THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION 
CONSIDER LIFTING SANCTIONS AS A SIGN OF ENCOURAGEMENT OR 
SHOULD THE U.S. WEIGH THE IDEA OF TOUGHER NEW SANCTIONS TO 
KEEP THE PRESSURE ON, AS ANTI-APARTHEID ACTIVISTS WITHIN 
SOUTH AFRICA ARE PROPOSING?  NEITHER APPROACH WOULD BE 
APPROPRIATE AT THIS PARTICULAR TIME.  TOUGHER NEW SANCTIONS 
WOULD PENALIZE THE DE KLERK GOVERNMENT UNNECESSARILY AT THE 
MOMENT IT HAS EMBARKED ON HISTORIC REFORM.  BUT, THE L986 
LAW LISTS FIVE CONDITIONS THE SAG MUST MEET BEFORE THE U.S. 
CAN LIFT SANCTIONS.  THESE CONDITIONS HAVE NOT YET BEEN 
MET.  THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION SHOULD INSTEAD BE LOOKING FOR 
WAYS TO EXPRESS ITS APPROVAL OF THE ACTIONS THE DE KLERK 
ADMINISTRATION IS EMBARKING ON AND BOLSTER THE DE KLERK 
GOVERNMENT AGAINST A POSSIBLE RIGHT-WING WHITE BACKLASH. 
BUSH'S SEPARATE INVITATIONS TO DE KLERK AND MANDELA ARE 
POSITIVE GESTURES.  P. 8A. 
 
EAGLEBURGER 
 
UNCLASSIFIED 
 
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