US embassy cable - 04BAGHDAD58

USEB 039: IRAQI INTERIM GOVERNMENT DECREE ON THE DEFENSE OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY

Identifier: 04BAGHDAD58
Wikileaks: View 04BAGHDAD58 at Wikileaks.org
Origin: Embassy Baghdad
Created: 2004-07-07 17:46:00
Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
Tags: PREL PGOV MOPS PINS PTER IZ
Redacted: This cable was not redacted by Wikileaks.
R 071746Z JUL 04
FM AMEMBASSY BAGHDAD
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 0085
SECDEF WASHINGTON DC
WHITE HOUSE NSC WASHDC
UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 05 BAGHDAD 000058 
 
STATE FOR NEA/NGA; L 
 
E.O. 12958: N/A 
TAGS:  PREL, PGOV, MOPS, PINS, PTER, IZ 
SUBJECT:  USEB 039: IRAQI INTERIM GOVERNMENT DECREE ON THE 
DEFENSE OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY 
 
1. (U) SUMMARY.  THE IRAQI INTERIM GOVERNMENT (IIG) ENACTED 
A DECREE ON THE DEFENSE OF NATIONAL SECURITY TODAY.  THE 
LAW IS AIMED AT BETTER COMBATING THE INSURGENCY WHILE 
MAINTAINING BASIC RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS.  THE LAW 
COMPLIES WITH ALL ASPECTS OF THE TRANSITIONAL 
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (TAL), WHICH IS EQUIVALENT TO AN IRAQI 
BILL OF RIGHTS.  POST PROVIDES COMMENTS ON THE LAW AND THE 
FULL TEXT OF THE LAW BELOW.  END SUMMARY. 
 
2. (U) ON WEDNESDAY, JULY 7, 2004, THE IRAQI INTERIM 
GOVERNMENT PASSED A DECREE ON THE DEFENSE OF NATIONAL 
SECURITY.  POST'S VIEW IS THAT THE LAW IS NOT DESIGNED TO 
GRANT THE IIG VAST ADDITIONAL POWERS.  TO THE CONTRARY, 
MOST OF WHAT THE DRAFT PERMITS COULD ALREADY HAVE BEEN DONE 
UNDER EXISTING IRAQI LAW.  THE DRAFT SERVES AS AN OMNIBUS 
ORDER, CONSOLIDATING IRAQI PROCEDURES WITHIN A RULE OF LAW 
FRAMEWORK FOR READY USE IN THE EVENT OF AN EMERGENCY.  THE 
IIG AS SOON AS IT WAS FORMED SIGNALED AN INTEREST IN SUCH 
AN ACT TO WORK WITH CPA AND US TO ENDEAVOR THAT THE FINAL 
DRAFT COMPORTED WITH HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS UNDER BOTH THE 
TAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW.  POST VIEWS THE OUTCOME AS 
FAVORABLE.  HIGHLIGHTS OF THE LAW FOLLOW IN PARAGRAPH 3 AND 
THE FULL TEXT OF THE LAW AS TRANSLATED BY THE U.S. EMBASSY 
IS IN PARAGRAPH 4. 
 
3. (U) HIGHLIGHTS. 
 
-- THE DECREE IS NOT SELF-EXECUTING.  BOTH THE PRIME 
MINISTER AND THE PRESIDENCY (UNANIMOUS VOTE OF THREE 
PERSONS) MUST DECLARE AN EMERGENCY CONDITION FOR THE DECREE 
TO HAVE EFFECT. 
 
-- THE DEFINITION OF "EMERGENCY CONDITION" LIMITS 
APPLICATION TO A CONTINUOUS, SUSTAINED CAMPAIGN OF VIOLENCE 
IN A PARTICULAR PART OF IRAQ THAT THREATENS THE PERSONAL 
SAFETY OF IRAQIS.  AN EMERGENCY CONDITION DOES NOT 
AUTOMATICALLY APPLY NATIONWIDE. 
 
-- ANY DECLARED EMERGENCY CONDITION AUTOMATICALLY SUNSETS 
AFTER 60 DAYS AND EVERY 30 DAYS THEREAFTER UNLESS 
REAFFIRMED BY THE PRIME MINISTER AND THE PRESIDENCY. 
 
-- ALL SEARCHES AND SEIZURES MUST COMPORT WITH THE TAL AND 
THUS REQUIRE JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION IN THE ABSENCE OF 
EXTREME EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES. 
 
-- ALL DETAINEES MUST BE BROUGHT BEFORE A JUDGE WITHIN 24 
HOURS, CONSISTENT WITH THE IRAQI CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. 
 
-- ALL EXECUTIVE DECISIONS, INCLUDING THE DECISION TO 
DECLARE AN EMERGENCY, ARE SUBJECT TO JUDICIAL REVIEW AND 
OVERSIGHT BY THE NATIONAL COUNCIL. 
 
-- TO THE EXTENT NEW POWERS OR PROCEDURES ARE AUTHORIZED, 
THEY APPLY ONLY IN AREAS OF A DECLARED EMERGENCY AND EXPIRE 
AFTER THE EMERGENCY. 
 
SUCH NEW POWERS AND PROCEDURES INCLUDE: 
 
-- LIMITED CONTROLS ON MOVEMENT, TRAVEL RESTRICTIONS, AND 
EXPLICIT AUTHORIZATION TO ORDER CURFEWS FOR A FIXED PERIOD 
OF TIME. 
 
-- CLOSING OR RESTRICTING ACTIVITIES OF PRIVATE 
ORGANIZATIONS, UNIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS, AFTER OBTAINING A 
COURT ORDER. 
 
-- ABILITY TO ENGAGE IN COVERT SURVEILLANCE MEASURES UPON 
JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION. 

-- ESTABLISHMENT OF A UNIFIED CHAIN OF COMMAND FOR IRAQI 
SECURITY FORCES, ALL OF WHOM WILL REPORT DIRECTLY TO THE 
PRIME MINISTER OR HIS DESIGNEE. 
 
-- BROAD POWER TO DELEGATE ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY FROM THE 
PRIME MINISTER TO CIVILIAN OR MILITARY OFFICIALS WHERE 
NECESSARY. 
 
-- AUTHORITY TO ORDER THE ISOLATION AND ENCIRCLEMENT OF 
AREAS EXPERIENCING WIDESPREAD INSURRECTION. 
 
-- AUTHORITY GRANTED TO THE PRIME MINISTER, WITH PRESIDENCY 
APPROVAL, TO GRANT PARDONS AND IMMUNITY. 
 
THE FORMER REGIME HAD SUCH POWERS BUT THEY WERE NOT 
ESTABLISHED IN WRITING, THEY WERE AVAILABLE AT ALL TIMES, 
AND THEY WERE SUBJECT TO ARBITRARY ENFORCEMENT. 
 
-- THE DECREE REAFFIRMS THE IIG'S COMMITMENT TO CARRYING 
OUT ELECTIONS BY JANUARY 1995, SAYING "IT IS NOT 
PERMISSIBLE TO USE ANY PROVISIONS OF THIS ORDER TO DELAY 
... 
IONS UNDER 1546, 
OR IRAQI SECURITY FORCES OPERATING UNDER UNIFIED MNF-I 
COMMAND. 
 
4. (U) BEGIN TEXT OF EMERGENCY LAW. 

REPUBLIC OF IRAQ 
OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER 
 
ORDER OF SAFEGUARDING NATIONAL SECURITY 
NUMBER (     ) FOR THE YEAR 2004 
 
IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE. 
 
ACCORDING TO THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 2 OF THE 
TRANSITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE LAW ANNEX, AND ACCORDING TO THE 
PROVISIONS OF ARTICLE 25 OF THE ABOVE-MENTIONED LAW, AND 
CONSISTENT WITH THE PROVISIONS OF CHAPTER TWO OF THIS LAW, 
WE PROMULGATE THE FOLLOWING ORDER. 
 
ARTICLE ONE 
 
THE PRIME MINISTER, WITH THE UNANIMOUS APPROVAL OF THE 
PRESIDENCY COUNCIL, MAY DECLARE A STATE OF EMERGENCY IN ANY 
PART OF IRAQ UPON THE EXPOSURE OF THE PEOPLE OF IRAQ TO A 
DANGER OF GRAVE PROPORTIONS, THREATENING THE LIVES OF 
INDIVIDUALS AND EMANATING FROM AN ONGOING CAMPAIGN OF 
VIOLENCE BY ANY NUMBER OF PEOPLE, FOR THE PURPOSE OF 
PREVENTING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BROAD BASED GOVERNMENT IN 
IRAQ, OR TO HINDER THE PEACEFUL PARTICIPATION OF ALL IRAQIS 
POLITICAL PROCESS, OR FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE. 
 
ARTICLE TWO 
 
A STATE OF EMERGENCY SHALL BE DECLARED BY AN ORDER 
EXPLAINING THE REASONS FOR WHICH THE STATE OF EMERGENCY WAS 
DECLARED, AS WELL AS A DEFINITION OF THE AREA IT COVERS, 
AND THE DEFINITION OF THE START OF THE STATE OF EMERGENCY 
AND ITS DURATION, PROVIDED THAT THE STATE OF EMERGENCY 
SHALL NOT EXTEND BEYOND 60 DAYS OR BEYOND THE ELIMINATION 
OF THE DANGER OR CIRCUMSTANCES THAT CALLED FOR ITS 
DECLARATION, WHICHEVER COMES FIRST. THE DURATION OF STATE 
OF EMERGENCY MAY BE PERIODICALLY EXTENDED, EVERY THIRTY 
DAYS 30 DAYS AS NECESSARY BY WRITTEN DECLARATION FROM THE 
PRIME MINISTER AND THE PRESIDENCY COUNCIL, AND IT SHALL 
AUTOMATICALLY CEASE TO BE EFFECTIVE, IF NOT EXTENDED IN 
WRITING, AT THE END OF ANY EXTENSION PERIOD. 
 
ARTICLE THREE 
 
THE PRIME MINISTER, DURING A STATE OF EMERGENCY AND WITHIN 
THE LIMITS OF THE AREA WHERE SUCH A STATE OF EMERGENCY IS 
DECLARED, IS EMPOWERED WITH THE FOLLOWING INTERIM 
EXTRAORDINARY AUTHORITIES. 
 
FIRST: AFTER THE ISSUANCE OF AN ARREST WARRANT OR A SEARCH 
WARRANT, EXCEPT IN EXTREME EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES, 
RESTRICTIONS MAY BE IMPOSED ON THE FREEDOMS OF THE CITIZENS 
OR THE FOREIGNERS IN IRAQ IN THE INSTANCES OF WITNESSED 
CRIMES OR ACCUSATIONS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE OR CREDIBLE 
SUSPICION IN THE AREAS OF TRANSPORT, MOVEMENT, ASSEMBLY, 
GATHERING, PASSAGE, TRAVEL FROM AND TO IRAQ, THE CARRYING 
OR USE OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION OR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS; 
THOSE WHOSE BEHAVIOR IS SUSPICIOUS CAN BE DETAINED, 
SEARCHED AND THEIR HOMES AND PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT CAN BE 
SUBJECT TO SEARCH. THE PRIME MINISTER SHALL DELEGATE THESE 
OR OTHER POWERS TO THOSE HE CHOOSES AMONG MILITARY OR 
CIVILIAN OFFICIALS. 
 
SECOND: IMPOSE CURFEW DURING A DETERMINED SHORT PERIOD OF 
TIME ON THE AREA THAT IS FACING A DANGEROUS SECURITY 
THREAT, SEEING EXPLOSIONS, UNREST AND LARGE SCALE ENEMY 
ARMED OPERATIONS; HE MAY ISOLATE SUCH AREA, CORDON IT OFF 
WITH APPROPRIATE FORCES AND SEARCH IT WHEN THERE IS PROOF 
OR SUSPICION THAT SOME OF ITS INHABITANTS POSSESS MEDIUM OR 
HEAVY WEAPONS, EXPLOSIVES OR WHEN OUTLAWS SEEK REFUGE 
THEREIN AND AFTER A SEARCH WARRANT IS ISSUED, EXCEPT IN 
EXTREME EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES. 
 
THIRD: IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON ASSETS AND PROHIBITED 
POSSESSIONS; PUT A PREVENTIVE FREEZE ON THE ASSETS OF THOSE 
ACCUSED OF CONSPIRACY, INSURGENCY, ARMED DISOBEDIENCE, 
ARMED UNREST, KILLINGS, BOMBINGS AND ON THE ASSETS OF 
WHOEVER PARTICIPATES OR COOPERATES WITH THEM IN ANY WAY IN 
THE COMMISSION OF THESE CRIMES OR INCITES THEM AND WHEN 
CRIMES ARE COMMITTED AS A RESULT OF SUCH INCITEMENT, 
INCLUDING THOSE WHO OFFER THEM HOMES OR PLACES TO STAY OR 
GATHER FULLY AWARE OF THEIR INTENTIONS. HE MAY DETAIN THOSE 
ACCUSED OF THESE CRIMES WHENEVER THERE IS SUFFICIENT LEGAL 
... 
AND TO ALL WIRED AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION MEANS 
AND EQUIPMENT IF THERE IS EVIDENCE THEY WERE USED IN THE 
ABOVE-MENTIONED CRIMES. HE MAY IMPOSE MONITORING OF THESE 
MEANS AND EQUIPMENT AND SEARCH AND SEIZE THEM IF THAT COULD 
LEAD TO THE UNCOVERING OF THE ABOVE-MENTIONED CRIMES OR 
PREVENT THEIR OCCURRENCE, AND THAT IS ONLY AFTER OBTAINING 
A WARRANT FROM THE CONCERNED JUDICIAL AUTHORITIES FOR A 
DETERMINED PERIOD OF TIME. 
 
FIFTH: IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON THE MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION 
BY LAND, AIR AND SEA IN SPECIFIC AREAS AND FOR DETERMINED 
PERIODS OF TIME. 
 
SIXTH: IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL PLACES, 
CLUBS, ASSOCIATIONS, UNIONS, COMPANIES, ESTABLISHMENTS AND 
OFFICES, BY LIMITING THEIR HOURS OF OPERATIONS AND BY 
MONITORING THEIR ACTIVITIES AND PLACING THEM UNDER GUARD 
AND DISBANDING THEM OR SUSPENDING THEM TEMPORARILY IF THERE 
IS EVIDENCE OF THEIR CONNECTION TO THE CRIMES MENTIONED IN 
PARAGRAPH (FIRST) OF ARTICLE 7, BUT ONLY AFTER GETTING A 
COURT ORDER. 
 
SEVENTH: TO SUSPEND TEMPORARILY OR PERMANENTLY THE 
EFFECTIVENESS OF LICENSES, POSSESSION OR TRADING OF WEAPONS 
AND AMMUNITION, AS WELL AS DANGEROUS MATERIALS AND 
EXPLOSIVES, IF IT IS PROVEN THAT THEY WERE USED OR 
ATTEMPTED TO BE USED IN THE CRIMES MENTIONED ABOVE, OR IN 
THE EVENT THAT THEY REPRESENTED A THREAT TO THE SECURITY 
AND STABILITY OF THE AREA, OR WHEN THEIR POSSESSION IS 
LEGALLY PROHIBITED. 
 
EIGHTH: TO COMMENCE LIMITED AND APPROPRIATE, SPEEDY 
MILITARY AND SECURITY DECISIONS AND MEASURES, IN AREAS 
WHERE THE STATE OF EMERGENCY WAS DECLARED, IN COORDINATION 
WITH THE MINISTERS OF DEFENSE AND INTERIOR OR ANY OTHER 
MINISTER AS WELL AS WITH THE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR OR 
ANY COMPETENT ENTITY. 
 
NINTH: DURING LARGE SCALE OPERATIONS, CARRIED OUT IN ORDER 
TO CONFRONT GREAT ARMED THREATS IN LARGE AREAS, IT SHALL BE 
POSSIBLE TO SEEK THE ASSISTANCE OF MULTINATIONAL FORCE, IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL 
RESOLUTION 1546 FOR THE YEAR 2004, AND TO TASK THE IRAQI 
ARMED FORCES, WITH THE UNANIMOUS APPROVAL BY THE PRESIDENCY 
COUNCIL, WITH CLEAR AND SPECIFIC TASKS THAT ARE APPROPRIATE 
TO THEIR SITUATION AND CAPABILITIES. THE EXTRAORDINARY 
MEASURES SHALL BE IMPLEMENTED IN THE REGION OF KURDISTAN, 
IN COORDINATION WITH ITS GOVERNMENT. 
 
ARTICLE FOUR 
 
DECISIONS AND ORDERS ISSUED FOR THE ARREST OR DETENTION OF 
PERSONS, OR THE SEIZURE OF ASSETS, PURSUANT TO THE 
PROVISIONS OF THIS LAW, SHALL BE PRESENTED TO THE 
INVESTIGATIVE JUDGE, ON THE CONDITION THAT THE ACCUSED IS 
BROUGHT TO STAND BEFORE THE INVESTIGATIVE JUDGE WITHIN (24) 
HOURS FROM THE EXECUTION OF SUCH DECISIONS AND ORDERS. 
 
ARTICLE FIVE 
 
FIRST: THE PRIME MINISTER SHALL EXERCISE THE EXTRAORDINARY 
AUTHORITIES PROVIDED FOR ABOVE, IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN 
ORDERS OR NOTICES OR WRITTEN STATEMENTS DISSEMINATED IN 
PRINTED, VISUAL AND AUDIO MEDIA, SPECIFYING THE DATE OF 
EFFECTIVENESS AND ITS DURATION. 
 
SECOND: WITHOUT INFRINGEMENT ON ANY GREATER PUNISHMENT 
STIPULATED BY CRIMINAL LAW AND LAWS IN EFFECT, VIOLATION OF 
THE ORDERS, STATEMENTS, DECLARATIONS OR DECISIONS ISSUED BY 
THE PRIME MINISTER OR HIS DESIGNATE, SHALL BE PUNISHABLE BY 
IMPRISONMENT FOR A PERIOD NOT EXCEEDING THREE YEARS AND A 
FINE NOT EXCEEDING ONE MILLION DINARS OR ONE OF EITHER OF 
THESE PUNISHMENTS. 
 
ARTICLE SIX 
 
THE ARMED FORCES, EMERGENCY FORCES, SPECIAL FORCES, CIVIL 
DEFENSE FORCES, INTERNAL SECURITY FORCES, AND THE SECURITY, 
INTELLIGENCE AND MILITARY INTELLIGENCE SERVICES IN THE AREA 
WHERE A STATE OF EMERGENCY IS DECLARED, SHALL REPORT 
DIRECTLY TO THE PRIME MINISTER, DURING THE PERIOD OF THE 
DECLARED STATE OF EMERGENCY, AND IN COORDINATION WITH THE 
COMMANDERS OF SUCH FORCES AND SERVICES, THE PRIME MINISTER 
MAY TASK ANY OF THEM WITH TASKS APPROPRIATE IN NATURE AND 
JURISDICTION AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE EMERGENCY 
CIRCUMSTANCES. 
 
ARTICLE SEVEN 
... 
 
DURING THE PERIOD OF 
THE STATE OF EMERGENCY, AND WHICH ARE REFERRED BY A JUDGE 
OF JURISDICTION INCLUDING CRIMES OF MURDER, ROBBERY, RAPE, 
KIDNAPPING, DESTRUCTION, BOMBING OR BURNING OR DAMAGING OF 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PROPERTY AND POSSESSION OF MILITARY 
WEAPONS AND THEIR AMMUNITION, OR THE MANUFACTURING, 
TRANSPORTATION, SMUGGLING OR TRADING OF SUCH WEAPONS. 
 
SECOND: OTHER CRIMES NOT SPECIFIED IN THE ABOVE PARAGRAPH, 
OR CRIMES REFERRED BY A JUDGE OF JURISDICTION, SHALL BE THE 
SPECIALTY OF THE CRIMINAL COURTS, WITHIN THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL 
JURISDICTIONS. 
 
THIRD: INVESTIGATIVE JUDGES, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THEIR 
GEOGRAPHICAL AND QUALITATIVE JURISDICTIONS, SHALL 
IMMEDIATELY COMMENCE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED 
CRIMES, AND THE CHIEF OF THE JUDICIAL COUNCIL OR THE CHIEF 
JUDGE OF THE SUPREME FEDERAL COURT, ONCE IT IS ESTABLISHED, 
MAY DELEGATE, WHENEVER IT IS DEEMED NECESSARY, OTHER 
APPROPRIATE JUDGES AND INVESTIGATORS INSTEAD OF THE 
INVESTIGATIVE JUDGES, OR IN ADDITION TO THEM TO INVESTIGATE 
A CRIME OR A PARTICULAR VARIETY OF CRIMES. 
 
FOURTH: THE PROVISIONS OF THE CRIMINAL CODE AND THE CODE OF 
CRIMINAL PROCEDURES, SHALL APPLY TO THE CRIMES REFERRED TO 
IN THE FIRST AND SECOND PARAGRAPHS OF THIS ARTICLE. 
 
ARTICLE EIGHT 
 
THE PRIME MINISTER, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENCY 
COUNCIL, CAN ORDER THE WITHDRAW OF A COURT CASE AND THE 
RELEASE OF THE ACCUSED BEFORE THEIR JUDGMENT PRIOR TO THE 
CASE BEING SUBMITTED TO THE RELEVANT TRIBUNAL OR DURING THE 
PROCEEDINGS FOR REASONS RELATED TO A HIGHER INTEREST OR TO 
SECURITY AND STABILITY. 
 
ARTICLE NINE 
 
FIRST: THE PRESIDENCY COUNCIL SHALL APPROVE UNANIMOUSLY THE 
EMERGENCY DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES. THE INTERIM NATIONAL 
CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY HAS THE RIGHT TO MONITOR THE 
EXECUTION OF SUCH PROCEDURES. 
 
SECOND: THE PRIME MINISTER'S DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES ARE 
SUBJECT TO REVIEW BY THE COURT OF CASSATION AND THE TWO 
COURTS OF CASSATION IN THE PROVINCE OF KURDISTAN REGARDING 
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN ITS AREAS. THE SUPREME FEDERAL 
COURT WHICH HAS THE RIGHT TO ABROGATE SUCH DECISIONS AND 
PROCEDURES AND TO RENDER THEM INVALID OR ILLEGAL OR TO 
APPROVE SUCH DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES TAKING INTO 
CONSIDERATION THE EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH 
THESE DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES WERE ISSUED. 
 
ARTICLE TEN 
 
THE PRIME MINISTER SHALL DECLARE, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE 
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, THE END OF THE STATE OF EMERGENCY AND 
THE RETURN OF MATTERS TO THEIR NORMAL STATE BY AN ORDER 
APPROVED UNANIMOUSLY BY THE PRESIDENTIAL COUNCIL, AND HIS 
AUTHORITY TO ISSUE EMERGENCY DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES AND 
APPEARANCES SHALL COME TO AN END. 
 
ARTICLE ELEVEN 
 
THE PRIME MINISTER CANNOT ABROGATE THE TRANSITIONAL 
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN WHOLE OR IN PART, OR IMPOSE PUNITIVE 
ACTIONS. 

ARTICLE TWELVE 
 
NO ARTICLE IN THIS ORDER CAN BE USED TO DELAY ELECTIONS 
ACCORDING TO THE TIMETABLE SPECIFIED IN THE TRANSITIONAL 
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW. THE IRAQI INTERIM GOVERNMENT MUST 
FULFILL ITS PRINCIPAL OBLIGATION OF PROVIDING THE 
APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT FOR HOLDING ELECTIONS ON TIME. 
 
ARTICLE THIRTEEN 
 
THIS LAW BECOMES EFFECTIVE ON THE DATE IT IS ISSUED, AND 
WILL BE PUBLISHED IN THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE. 
 
THE JUSTIFYING CAUSES: 
 
IN VIEW OF THE CRITICAL SECURITY CONDITIONS AND THE SERIOUS 
CONSEQUENCES THAT ARE STILL BESIEGING IRAQ DURING THIS 
PERIOD AND THE FIRM NECESSITY TO COUNTER TERRORISTS AND LAW 
BREAKERS, AND PURSUANT TO THE COMMITMENT OF THE IRAQI 
INTERIM GOVERNMENT TO PROTECT THE RIGHT OF THE CITIZENS TO 
A DIGNIFIED FREE EXISTENCE, TO GUARANTEE THEIR POLITICAL 
... 
O HOLD FREE DEMOCRATIC 
ELECTIONS AS PRESCRIBED IN THE TRANSITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE 
LAW, AND IN SUPPORT OF THE RULE OF LAW, AND THE 
INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY, ITS EFFECTIVENESS AND ITS 
MONITORING, AND TO PREVENT THE EXCESSIVE USE OF FORCE AND 
THE ABUSE OF AUTHORITY UNDER EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES, AND 
FOR OTHER KNOWN REASONS, WE ISSUED THIS ORDER. 
 
END TEXT OF EMERGENCY LAW. 
 
NEGROPONTE 

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