US embassy cable - 00HARARE4057

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN DEMOCRACY

Identifier: 00HARARE4057
Wikileaks: View 00HARARE4057 at Wikileaks.org
Origin: Embassy Harare
Created: 2000-07-24 12:46:00
Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
Tags: OIIP ZI KPAO
Redacted: This cable was not redacted by Wikileaks.
This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

241246Z Jul 00


                           UNCLASSIFIED     PTQ0395

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INFO  LOG-00   AMAD-00  A-00     UTED-00  TEDE-00  IO-00    LAB-01   
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FM AMEMBASSY HARARE
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6673
UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 HARARE 004057 
 
SIPDIS 
 
DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD) 
 
E.O. 12958: N/A 
TAGS: OIIP, ZI, KPAO 
SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN 
DEMOCRACY 
 
 
1.  SUMMARY:  THE WIN OF 57 PARLIAMENTARY SEATS BY THE 
    MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC CHANGE (MDC) IN THE JUNE, 2000 
    ELECTIONS MARKS AN IMPORTANT NEW STAGE IN THE EVOLUTION 
    OF ZIMBABWEAN DEMOCRACY. AFTER 20 YEARS AS A ONE-PARTY 
    STATE, THE RULING ZIMBABWE AFRICAN NATIONAL UNION - 
    PATRIOTIC FRONT (ZANU-PF) PARTY WILL NOW NEED TO 
    COMPETE WITH A MEANINGFUL OPPOSITION IN THE PARLIAMENT. 
    WHILE ZANU-PF STILL CONTROLS A PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY, 
    AND WILL PROBABLY BE ABLE TO PASS THE LEGISLATION IT 
    DESIRES (WITH THE EXCEPTION OF CONSTITUTIONAL 
    AMENDMENTS -- THOSE REQUIRE A TWO-THIRDS MAJORITY) IT 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
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    MUST NOW COMPETE IN THE MARKETPLACE OF IDEAS AND 
    IDEOLOGIES WITH A NEW GENERATION OF POLITICAL THOUGHT. 
    THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A VIABLE OPPOSITION IN 
    ZIMBABWE WAS A COMPLEX AND LENGTHY PROCESS, AND OWES 
    ITS SUCCESS TO THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE OF ZIMBABWE.  IT 
    IS POSSIBLE, HOWEVER, TO RELATE U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLIC 
    DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS TO THE GROWTH OF A POLITICAL 
    ENVIRONMENT AMENABLE TO DEMOCRATIC PLURALISM IN 
    ZIMBABWE.  THIS REPORT ATTEMPTS TO OUTLINE HOW USG 
    PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS IN ZIMBABWE HELPED TO CREATE 
    SOME OF THE CONDITIONS THAT LED TO BROADER PUBLIC 
    INVOLVEMENT IN THE NATION'S POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.  END 
    SUMMARY. 
    ZIMBABWE HAVE THE RIGHT TO THAT CLAIM.  WE CAN, 
    HOWEVER, TAKE CREDIT FOR HAVING PROVIDED THE PEOPLE OF 
    ZIMBABWE WITH IDEAS, EXAMPLES AND SKILLS WHICH 
    STRENGTHENED THEIR OWN EXPRESSIONS OF SELF- 
    DETERMINATION.  OUR PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN NON-PARTISAN, 
    PROVIDING INFORMATION AND AMERICAN EXPERIENCES TO 
    MEMBERS OF THE RULING PARTY AS WELL AS TO PEOPLE WHO 
    HAVE BECOME LEADERS IN THE OPPOSITION AND IN CIVIL 
    SOCIETY.  THE NON-PARTISAN NATURE OF OUR PROGRAMS 
    UNDERSCORES THE NOTION THAT ONLY THE PEOPLE OF ZIMBABWE 
    CAN CLAIM CREDIT FOR POLITICAL PROGRESS IN THEIR 
    COUNTRY.  IT ALSO SUPPORTS THE NOTION THAT IDEAS AND 
    INFORMATION, OUR BASIC COMMODITIES, BREED POLITICAL 
    DEVELOPMENT. 
 
3.  IN THE 20 YEARS SINCE ZIMBABWE'S INDEPENDENCE, A BROAD 
    ARRAY OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS HAS CONTRIBUTED TO 
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRACY.  THE FOLLOWING IS A 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
PAGE 03        HARARE  04057  01 OF 03  241243Z 
    PARTIAL LISTING OF PROGRAMS THAT HAVE BEEN ESPECIALLY 
    PRODUCTIVE.  WE STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT AF/PD ALSO ASK 
    FORMER USIS OFFICERS WHO HAVE WORKED IN ZIMBABWE FOR 
    ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC 
    DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS HERE. 
 
4.  THE MAY 2000 EMINENT PERSONS IN CONSULTATION (EPIC) 
    PROGRAM -- THIS PROGRAM LED DIRECTLY TO THE PRODUCTION 
    OF CRITICAL VOTER EDUCATION MATERIAL IMMEDIATELY BEFORE 
    ZIMBABWE'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS.  THIS AMBASSADORIAL 
    INITIATIVE WAS FUNDED BY USAID/ZIMBABWE AND MANAGED BY 
    THE EMBASSY'S PUBLIC AFFAIRS SECTION.  DURING ONE OF 
    THE PROGRAM'S WORKSHOPS, A FLIER TO EDUCATE ZIMBABWE'S 
    VOTERS ABOUT THE SECRECY OF THE BALLOT WAS CONCEIVED 
    AND DESIGNED.  WITHIN TWO WEEKS, THE LEGAL RESOURCES 
    FOUNDATION, A LEADING ZIMBABWEAN NGO, HAD PRODUCED ONE 
    MILLION COPIES OF THE FLIER.  IT WAS USED AS AN INSERT 
    IN ALL OF THE NATION'S NEWSPAPERS AND GIVEN AWAY AT 
    SHOPS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY.  SECRECY OF THE BALLOT 
    WAS A MAJOR CONCERN FOR MANY VOTERS IN ZIMBABWE AND THE 
    TIMELY PRODUCTION OF THE FLIER WAS AN IMPORTANT MEANS 
    OF HELPING TO PROMOTE THE FREEST, FAIREST POSSIBLE 
    ELECTIONS. 
5.  CIVITAS PROGRAMS BETWEEN 1997 AND 1999 -- THE MOST 
    CONCRETE RESULT OF ZIMBABWEAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE 
    CIVITAS INITIATIVE WAS THE DEVELOPMENT AND INCLUSION OF 
    CIVIC EDUCATION MATERIALS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL 
    CURRICULA.  MR. CONRAD KUONA, ONE OF 
THE ZIMBABWEAN 
    PARTICIPANTS IN THE MAY 1997 CIVITAS CONFERENCE IN 
    PRETORIA, WAS NAMED TO THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION'S 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
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    COMMISSION ON EDUCATION.  USING THIS POSITION, 
    MATERIALS AND WISDOM GAINED THROUGH THE CIVITAS 
    PROGRAM, AND CONTINUED POST SUPPORT (INCLUDING AN 
    ACADEMIC SPECIALIST), MR. KUONA INTEGRATED CIVIC 
    EDUCATION MATERIAL INTO THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM.  AS A 
    DIRECT RESULT OF THE CIVITAS PROGRAM, SECONDARY SCHOOL 
    STUDENTS THROUGHOUT ZIMBABWE NOW RECEIVE INSTRUCTION ON 
    CITIZENS' BASIC CIVIC RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. 
 
6.  THE CIVITAS PROGRAM, IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN USIS- 
    ADMINISTERED GRANT FROM USAID, RESULTED IN THE 1998 
    CREATION OF A NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH PROGRAM IN ZIMBABWE. 
    THIS WAS FOLLOWED BY THE PUBLICATION IN 1999 OF A BOOK 
    ON WHY AND HOW TO ORGANIZE NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH PROGRAMS. 
 
7.  IMPOSSIBLE TO PROVE, BUT AVOWED BY ONE ZIMABWEAN 
    PARTICIPANT IN THE MAY 1997 PRETORIA CIVITAS CONFRENCE, 
    IS THE PROPOSITION THAT ZIMBABWE'S CONSTITUTIONAL 
    REFORM BEGAN THERE.  VICTOR JUMO, THEN WITH THE 
    ZIMBABWEAN NGO "THE LEGAL RESOURCES FOUNDATION," TELLS 
 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
                           UNCLASSIFIED     PTQ0398 
 
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ACTION AF-00 
 
INFO  LOG-00   AMAD-00  A-00     UTED-00  TEDE-00  IO-00    LAB-01 
      OIC-02   PA-00    IRM-00   IAP-00   USIE-00  R-00     IIP-00 
      DRL-02   SAS-00     /005W 
                  ------------------71A7E5  241244Z /38 
R 241246Z JUL 00 
FM AMEMBASSY HARARE 
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6674 
 
UNCLAS SECTION 02 OF 03 HARARE 004057 
 
SIPDIS 
 
DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD) 
 
E.O. 12958: N/A 
TAGS: OIIP, ZI, KPAO 
SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN 
DEMOCRACY 
 
    US THAT ZIMBABWEAN PARTICIPANTS IN CIVITAS '97 WERE 
    INSPIRED AT THE CONFERENCE BY THEIR SOUTH AFRICAN 
    COUNTERPARTS' WORK ON CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM.  UPON 
    RETURNING TO ZIMBABWE, THE ZIMBABWEAN CIVITASIANS 
    CONVOKED A MEETING OF OTHER NGOS.  THAT MEETING LED TO 
    THE CREATION OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY 
    (NCA).  THE NCA'S WORK TO PROMOTE CONSTITIONAL REFORM 
    GALVANIZED PULIC OPINION, LED TO THE GOVERNMENT'S 
    CREATION OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION, AND RESULTED 
    IN A DRAFT CONSTITUTION IN LATE 1999.  POPULAR 
    REJECTION OF THAT DRAFT IN THE FEBRUARY 2000 REFERENDUM 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
PAGE 02        HARARE  04057  02 OF 03  241243Z 
    GENERATED A SENSE OF POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT AMONG 
    ZIMBABWEAN VOTERS AND HELPED TO CREATE THE VOTER TURN- 
    OUT AND COURAGE WHICH ELECTED AN UNPRECEDENTED 
    OPPOSITION BLOCK TO PARLIAMENT IN JUNE 2000. 
8.  INTERNATIONAL VISITOR GRANTS HAVE PROVIDED FIRST-TIME 
    EXPOSURE TO THE U.S. FOR A NUMBER OF ZIMBABWEANS WHO 
    HAVE GONE ON TO POSITIONS OF NATIONAL PROMINENCE.  THE 
    LIST OF FORMER IV GRANTEES READS LIKE A WHO'S WHO OF 
    INFLUENTIAL ZIMBABWEANS.  ONE OF THE MOST NOTABLE IS 
    MORGAN TSVANGIRAI, THE LEADER OF THE NEWLY FORMED 
    OPPOSTION PARTY, THE MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC CHANGE 
    (MDC).  TSVANGIRAI PARTICIPATED IN A 1989 MULTI- 
    REGIONAL IV PROGRAM.  OF COURSE, NOT EVERY SINGLE IV 
    ALUMNI HAS PROVEN TO BE A DISTINGUISHED DEFENDER OF 
    DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND FREE MARKETS, BUT THE 
    OVERALL LIST IS OVERWHELMINGLY POSITIVE.  THE FOLLOWING 
    PARAGRAPHS OFFER A PARTIAL LISTING OF PROMINENT IV 
    ALUMNI. 
 
9.  MEDIA: "DAILY NEWS" (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION) 
    EDITOR IN CHIEF GEOFF NYAROTA; "DAILY NEWS" NEWS EDITOR 
    WILLIAM BANGO (1987); "DAILY NEWS" DEPUTY EDITOR BILL 
    SAIDI (1993); "STANDARD" (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION) 
    EDITOR IN CHIEF CLIVE WILSON; ZIANA (ZIMBABWE 
    ASSOCIATED NEWS AGENCY) EDITOR IN CHIEF WILF MBANGA 
    (1981); JOY TV DIRECTOR ISHMAEL KADUNGURE (1983); 
    "HERALD" (GOVERNMENT-OWNED DAILY) EDITOR IN CHIEF 
    BORNWELL CHAKAODZA (1998); "CHRONICLE" (GOVERNMENT- 
    OWNED DAILY IN BULAWAYO) EDITOR IN CHIEF STEPHEN MPOFU 
    (1990); "FINANCIAL GAZETTE" (INDEPENDENT, PRO- 
    OPPOSITION WEEKLY) EDITOR IN CHIEF TREVOR NCUBE (1990); 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
PAGE 03        HARARE  04057  02 OF 03  241243Z 
    "STANDARD" (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION WEEKLY) EDITOR 
    IN CHIEF MARK CHAVUNDUKA. 
 
10. JUDICIARY: SUPREME COURT CHIEF JUSTICE ANTHONY GUBBAY 
    (1990); HIGH COURT JUDGE GODFREY CHIDYAUSIKU (1984); 
    HIGH COURT JUDGE PADDINGTON GARWE (1987); HIGH COURT 
    JUDGE FERGUS BLACKIE (1992); HIGH COURT JUDGE YUNUS 
    OMERJEE (1995); HIGH COURT JUDGE WILSON SANDURA (1996). 
 
11. GOVERNMENT: NEW ZANU-PF MINISTER OF FINANCE NKOSANA 
    MOYO (EISENHOWER FELLOW IN 1995); NEW ZANU-PF MINISTER 
    OF JUSTICE PATRICK CHINAMASA (1983); NEW ZANU-PF 
    MI 
NISTER OF HOME AFFAIRS JOHN NKOMO (1986); NEW ZANU-PF 
    MINISTER OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT, GENDER AND EMPLOYMENT 
    CREATION BORDER GEZI (1992); NEW ZANU-PF GOVERNOR OF 
    MIDLANDS PROVINCE CEPHAS MSIPA (1982); CLERK OF THE 
    PARLIAMENT AUSTIN ZVOMA (1983); NEW MDC MEMBER OF 
    PARLIAMENT MIKE AURET (1986); NEW MDC MEMBER OF 
    PARLIAMENT DAVID COLTART (1988); NATIONAL COMMISSIONER 
    OF POLICE AUGUSTINE CHIHURI (1995); NEW MDC MEMBER OF 
    PARLIAMENT TENDAI BITI (1999). 
 
12. ACADEMICS: DR. RUKUDZO MURAPA (VICE CHANCELLOR OF 
    AFRICA UNIVERSITY); UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE HEAD 
    LIBRARIAN STANISLAUS MADE (1985). 
 
13. BUSINESS: BARCLAY'S BANK MANAGING DIRECTOR ISAAC 
    TAKAWIRA (1989); COMMERCIAL FARMERS' UNION DIRECTOR 
    DAVID HASLUCK (1980); CEO OF ECONET CELLULAR PHONE 
    SYSTEM STRIVE MASIYIWA (1992). 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
PAGE 04        HARARE  04057  02 OF 03  241243Z 
 
14. CIVIL SOCIETY: ZIMBABWEAN COORDINATOR FOR THE AFRICAN- 
    AMERICAN INSTITUTE DOREEN SIBANDA (1981); DIRECTOR OF 
    THE NATIONAL GALLERY PROF. GEORGE KAHARI (1981); 
    DIRECTOR OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS DOCUMENTATION AND RESEARCH 
    TRUST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA PHILIAT MATSHEZA (1996); 
    NATIONAL COORDINATOR OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL 
    ASSEMBLY ISAAC MAPHOSA (1999). 
 
15. LOOKING AHEAD, WE BELIEVE THAT PUBLIC DIPLOMACY 
    PROGRAMS IN THE NEXT TWO OR THREE YEARS CAN MAKE THE 
    MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS THROUGH SUPPORT FOR RULE 
    OF LAW (FOCUS ON STRENGTHENING THE JUDICIARY), SUPPORT 
    FOR CIVIL SOCIETY (FOCUS ON CIVIC AND HUMAN RIGHTS 
    EDUCATION), AND SUPPORT FOR THE INDEPENDENT MEDIA 
    (FOCUS ON LIBERALIZATION OF BROADCAST MEDIA). 
 
16. WE WILL BE HAPPY TO WORK FURTHER WITH AF/PD AND OTHERS 
    TO REFINE AND FLESH-OUT THE HISTORY OF PD PROGRAMS IN 
    ZIMBABWE AND THEIR CUMULATIVE EFFECT ON THIS NATION'S 
 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
                           UNCLASSIFIED     PTQ0399 
 
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ACTION AF-00 
 
INFO  LOG-00   AMAD-00  A-00     UTED-00  TEDE-00  IO-00    LAB-01 
      OIC-02   PA-00    IAP-00   USIE-00  R-00     IIP-00   DRL-02 
      SAS-00     /005W 
                  ------------------71A7E7  241244Z /38 
R 241246Z JUL 00 
FM AMEMBASSY HARARE 
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6675 
 
UNCLAS SECTION 03 OF 03 HARARE 004057 
 
SIPDIS 
 
DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD) 
 
E.O. 12958: N/A 
TAGS: OIIP, ZI, KPAO 
SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN 
DEMOCRACY 
 
    DEVELOPMENT. 
IRVING 
 
                       UNCLASSIFIED 
 
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